Diagram for Vietnam: People's Victory

3. The area covered by a given activity or subject. See Synonyms at range.
the range in which a variable can be referenced
ambit, range, reach, compass, orbit

Liberation Struggle



1. A topic of discourse or discussion
2. A subject of artistic representation.
5. Music The principal melodic phrase in a composition, especially a melody forming the basis of a set of variations.
8. (modifier) planned or designed round one unifying subject, image, etc.
subject, topic,
a. A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work.
b. A dominant theme or central idea.
Interconnectedness of Vietnamese Liberation struggle and Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.
Black Liberation Movement Supported Vietnamese
Vietnamese Liberation Movement Supported Black Americans
Could the Vietnamese have won their Independence in 1975 without the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.?
Would a Black President even be possible now if not for the Vietnamese War of Independence?
Civil rights movement propelled Anti-War movement which pressured govt to end the war.
U.S. govt claims to be defender of Freedom & Democracy in Vietnam required that they not ignore civil rights struggle - it was embarrassing to them. U.S. Govt was worried about International Image.
Black militants in the military played leading role in G.I. Resistance
Black soldiers refusing to fight
U.S. gov 't need Black soldiers to fight the war and so had to consider demands.
Rebellion in the city, revolution in the air meant U.S. govt need troops to control the people at home. Put more pressure on the military.
Imperialist war radicalized Black soldiers.
A 1970 survey showed that 30.6 percent of black enlisted men in the armed forces planned "to join a militant Black group like the Panthers" when they returned home.
Civils rights movement et al brought international dicredit to the U.S. on another front.
While U.S. govt makes concessions on racism at home it exports racism & racists to SEA. Example: Many Klansman in Vietnam - Southern Racists who were finding their more physical and violent practises curtailed in the U.S. had the option of taking it out on gooks and niggers in SEA.

Moral Lesson:
1. The lesson or principle contained in or taught by a fable, a story, or an event.
2. A concisely expressed precept or general truth; a maxim.
import, significance
lesson - the significance of a story or event;

The Power of the People is greater than the Man's Technology! 
No Matter how Formidable the Enemy, People's Struggles can lead to Victory


1921 Nguyen Ai Quoc [Ho Chi Minh] wrote in Communist Review: "When hundreds of millions of ill-treated and oppressed Asians stand up to liberate themselves from the odious exploitation of greedy colonialists, they will form a gigantic force capable of helping their brothers in the West secure complere liberation by destroying one of the conditions for the exirence of capitalism, namely imperialism."

1945 9-2 The Communist dominated Viet Minh Independence League seizes power. Ho Chi Minh establishes the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (GRDV) in Hanoi.

1945 9-26 Lt. Col. A. Peter Dewey became the first American soldier to die in Vietnam. Apparently mistaken for a Frenchman, Dewey was gunned down by Vietminh troops while driving a jeep to the airport. The son of a former Illinois congressman, he had been the head of the American O.S.S. mission.

1945 First protests against U.S. involvement in Vietnam take place in 1945, when United States Merchant Marine
sailors condemn the U.S. government for the use of U.S. merchant ships to transport French troops whose express purpose is to "subjugate the native population" of Vietnam.

1951 5-2 Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company

1953 8-19 Iranian coup d'état

1953 - 1958 "Operation Wetback", the U.S. Immigration Service arrests and deports more than 3.8 million Latin Americans. Many U.S. citizens are deported unfairly, including political activist Luisa Moreno and other community leaders.

1954 Iranian Consortium Agreement of 1954, for the first time, United States oil companies shared in the control of Iranian oil, with the U.S. and UK evenly splitting 80% and the remainder divided between French and Dutch interests

1954 5-7 Dien Bien Phu falls to Viet Minh

1955 5-10 South Vietnam formally requests U.S. Instructors for armed forces.

1954 5-17 Brown v. Board of Education decision handed down

1954 5-24 the U.S Navy created a sea blockade on Guatemala called operation HARDROCK BAKE

1954 6-18 Guatemalan coup d'état

1955 7-20 South Vietnam cancels Geneva Accord elections

1954 10-24 Eisenhower advises Diem that the U.S, will provide assistance directly to South Vietnam, instead of channeling it though French authorities.

1955 12-1 Rosa Parks won't give up seat Montgomery Bus Boycott starts.

1956 Feb. The pejorative “Viet Cong,” a contraction for "Vietnamese Communists" is create by American psyops as a substitute for "Viet Minh" and first promoted through Saigon newspapers.  according to Everett Bumgardner "A Bright Shining Lie" p.189

1956 2-18 While visiting Peking, Sihanouk renounces SEATO protection for his nation.

1956 12-20 Montgomery Bus Boycott ends

1957 Eisenhower Sends Federal Troops to Little Rock, AK

1959 7-8 Major Dale R. Buis and Master Sargeant Chester M. Ovnand become the first Americans to die in the Vietnam War during the guerilla strike at Bienhoa

1959 5-6 Diem issues repressive Law 10/59

1960 Eisenhower authorizes covert actions to get rid of Castro. Among other things, the CIA tries assassinating him with exploding cigars and poisoned milkshakes. Other covert actions against Cuba include burning sugar fields, blowing up boats in Cuban harbors, and sabotaging industrial equipment.

1960 Early SDS formed

1960 2-1 4 black college students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College sat down at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina and refused to leave, they are then allowed to stay at the counter, but are refused service.

1960 3-15 The sit-ins spread to 15 cities in 5 southern states.

1960 4-16,17  SNCC founded is founded at Shaw University

1960 5-6 Civil Rights Act of 1960 signed

1960 Dec. NLF is formed

1961 4-25 the Unites States invades Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and the mission is a failure.

1961 5-4  the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) begins sending student volunteers on bus trips to test the implementation of new laws prohibiting segregation in interstate travel facilities. One of the first two groups of "freedom riders," encounters its first problem two weeks later, when a mob in Alabama sets the riders' bus on fire. The program continues and by the end of the summer 1,000 volunteers, black and white, have participated. The Freedom Riders force integration of Interstate and Travel facilities in the South.

1961 Joseph Heller's Catch 22 is published.

1961 9-1,4 Viet Cong carry out series of attacks in Kontum province, SV

1961 9-18 A viet Cong battalion seizes the provincial capital of Phouc Vinh

1961 11-1 Fifty thousand women in sixty cities, mobilized by Women Strike for Peace, protest above ground testing of nuclear bombs and tainted milk.

1961 11-16 Kennedy increases military aid to South Vietnam but no combat troops

1961 10-6 President Kennedy advises Americans to build fallout shelters.

1962 Jan  People's Revolutionary Party in SV   "it was explicitly the "Marxist-Leninist Party of South Vietnam," and it purported to be the "vanguard of the NLF, the paramount member." In 1962, it had some 35,000 members." pp

1962 1-12 Operation Chopper: America's first combat missions against the Vietcong.

1962 6-15 The Port Huron Statement is adopted by SDS

1962 1-7 U.S. Military Employs Agent Orange, Operation Ranch Hand

1962 2-7 4,000 U.S. troops in SV with addition of 2 Army aviation units

1962 Sept. Silent Spring published

1962 9-30 James Meredith Enrolls at "Ole Miss"

1963 1-2 Battle of Ap Bac

1963 2-25 Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is published

1963 4-16 Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Ala.; he writes his seminal "Letter from Birmingham Jail," arguing that individuals have the moral duty to disobey unjust laws.

1963 5-8 Riots in Hue when SV gov't troops try to prevent celebration of Buddha's birthday

1963 May the first coordinated Vietnam War protests occur in London and Australia

1963 May During civil rights protests in Birmingham, Ala., Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene "Bull" Connor uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators.

1963 6-11 President Kennedy proposes the Civil Rights Bill.

1963 6-11 Thích Quảng Đức First of seven Buddhist monks commits suicide

1963 6-12 (Jackson, Miss.) Mississippi's NAACP field secretary, 37-year-old Medgar Evers, is murdered outside his home.

1963 7-26,28 Newport Folk Festival, includes popular folk singers Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Pete Seeger.

1963 8-28 About 200,000 people join the The March for Jobs and Freedom. Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial, participants listen as Martin Luther King delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.

1963 9-15 (Birmingham, Ala.) Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school are killed when a bomb explodes at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupt in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.

1963 11-2 Diem overthrown and murdered

1963 11-15  Following a prediction by Defense Secretary MCNamara that the U.S. military role will end by. 1965, the U.S. gov't announces that 1,00 of the 15,000 American advisers in South Vietnam will be withdrawth early in December.

1963 11-22 President Kennedy's assassination

1963 11-24 President Johnson escalates American's military involvement in the Vietnam War, declares he will not "lose Vietnam" during a meeting with Ambassador Lodge in Washington.

1963 11-29 The Beatles release "I Want to Hold Your Hand,"

1963 12-31 16,300 American military advisors in South Vietnam.

1964 1-8 President Johnson declares a "War on Poverty" in the State of the Union address thus initiating plans for his Great Society.

1964 1-23 The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.

1964 2-3 In protests against alleged de-facto school racial segregation, black and Puerto Rican groups in New York City boycott public school.

1964 3-8 Macolm X breaks with Nation of Islam announces he is forming a black nationalist party.

1964 4-19 Military coup in Laos.

1964 5-2 In the first major student demonstration against the war hundreds of students march through Times Square in New York City, while another 700 march in San Francisco. Smaller numbers also protest in Boston; Seattle; and Madison, Wisconsin.

1964 Summer The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SNCC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom Summer.

1964 6-12 Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison.

1964 6-21 James E. Cheney, 21; Andrew Goodman, 21; and Michael Schwerner, 24 go missing.

1964 7-2 Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964 7-23 There is a Race riot in Harlem, NY

1964 7-30 On this night, South Vietnamese commandos attack two small North Vietnamese islands in the Gulf of Tonkin. The U.S. destroyer Maddox, an electronic spy ship, is 123 miles south with orders to electronically simulate an air attack to draw North Vietnamese boats away from the commandos.

1964 8-4 Gulf of Tonkin Incident

1964 8-4  Three civil rights workers ( Michael Schwerner,Andrew Goodman and James Chaney ) were found buried

1964 8-24,27 Democratic Convention, Atlantic City Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

1964 8-28 There are Race riots in Philadelphia

1964 9-14 Free Speech Movement protests begin at Berkeley.

1964 10-14  Announced that Martin Luther King Jr. has won the the Nobel Peace Prize.

1964 11-1 Two days before the U.S. presidential election, Vietcong mortars shell Bien Hoa Air Base near Saigon. Four Americans are killed, 76 wounded. Five B-57 bombers are destroyed, and 15 are damaged.

1964 12-20 Military coup - South Vietnam.

1964 12-3 Police arrest 800 students at Berkeley for occupying the administration building.

1964-12-31  23,000 U.S. troops

1965 1,1-2,7 Vietcong forces mount a series of attacks across South Vietnam. They briefly seize control of Binh Gia, a village only 40 miles from Saigon. Two hundred South Vietnamese troops are killed near Binh Gia, along with five American advisors.

1965 1-2 The Selma Voting Rights Movement officially started on January 2, 1965, when Dr. King addressed a mass meeting in Brown Chapel in defiance of the anti-meeting injunction.

1965 1-18 Malcolm X denounces US involvement in Vietnam

1965 1-27 Khanh seizes full control of South Vietnamese government

1965 1-29 one of the first violent acts of protest was the Edmonton aircraft bombing, where planes being retrofitted in Canada were destroyed

1965 2-7 VC attack US base at Pleiku - A U.S. helicopter base and advisory compound in the central highlands of South Vietnam is attacked by NLF commandos. Nine Americans are killed and more than 70 are wounded. President Johnson immediately orders U.S. Navy fighter-bombers to attack military targets just inside North Vietnam.

1965 2-8 U.S. starts bombing North Vietnam.

1965 2-10 A Vietcong-placed bomb explodes in a hotel in Qui Nonh, killing 23 American servicemen.

1965 2-13 President Johnson authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder

1965 2-18 an Alabama State Trooper, corporal James Bonard Fowler, shot Jimmie Lee Jackson as he tried to protect his mother and grandfather in a café to which they had fled while being attacked by troopers during a nighttime civil rights demonstration in Marion,

1965 2-18 Sect. of Defense Robert McNamara calls for nationwide network of bomb shelters.

1965 2-18 Khanh ousted in a military coup, he is replaced by a military/civilian government led by Dr. Phan Huy Quat.

1965 2-21 Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom

1965 2-25 Bombing of North Vietnam starts

1965 3-2 Operation Rolling Thunder starts

1965 3-3 Owsley starts LSD factory, making large quantities of acid available for the first time.

1965 3-6 First American soldier officially sets foot on Vietnam battlefields, First U.S. combat troops begin fighting in South Vietnam.

1965 3-7 (Selma, Ala.) Blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media.

1965 3-7,8 3,500 The first U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam as 3500 Marines land at China Beach to defend the American air base at Da Nang.

1965 3-9 Johnson approves the use of napalm.

1965 3-13 Alice Herz, an 82-year-old survivor of Nazi terror, set herself on fire in Detroit shortly after President Johnson announced major troop increases and the bombing of North Vietnam.

1965 3-16 Police break-up a Civil Rights demonstration of 600 in Montgomery, Alabama

1965 3-17 1,600 people demonstrate at Montgomery, Alabama courthouse

1965 3-21 Martin Luther King Jr. leads march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama joined by 25,000 marchers.

1965 3-24, the anti-war organization Students for a Democratic Society attended the first teach-in, organized by some teachers, against the war at the University of Michigan, attended by 2,500 participants. This was to be repeated at 35 campuses across the country.

1965 3-25 Civil rights worker shot and killed by KKK in Alabama

1965 3-28 Martin Luther King calls for boycott of Alabama on TV

1965 4-3 An American campaign against North Vietnam's transport system begins. In a month-long offensive, Navy and Air Force planes hit bridges, road and rail junctions, truck parks and supply depots.

1965 4-7 The U.S. offers North Vietnam economic aid in exchange for peace, but the offer is summarily rejected. Two weeks later, President Johnson raises America's combat strength in Vietnam to more than 60,000 troops. Allied forces from Korea and Australia are added as a sign of international support.

1965 4-17 the SDS and SNCC led the first of several anti-war marches in Washington DC, with about 25,000 protesters.

1965 4-28 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic with 42,000 troops. Occupation lasts to Sept. 1966, 1,500 civilians and 500 combatants killed on Dominican side. General Robert York led, from Alabama [Bright Shining Lie] and was active in Vietnam.

1965 5-3 The first U.S. Army combat troops, 3500 men of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, arrive in Vietnam.

1965 5-9,10 Bob Dylan performs at the Royal Albert Hall

1965 5-11 2500  Vietcong troops attack Song Be, a South Vietnamese provincial capital. After two days of fierce battles in and around the town, the Vietcong withdraw.

1965 5-12 The California State Senate's Byrne Committee releases report calling the Berkeley campus a haven for communists.

1965 5-22,23 1st draft card burnings at UCB at demo organized by the Vietnam Day Committee, where a coffin was marched to the local Draft board office, a teach-in was attended by 30,000, and president Lyndon Johnson was burned in effigy.

1965 May -  First anti Vietnam war demonstration in London outside the U.S. embassy

1965 6-10 At Dong Xai, a South Vietnamese Army district headquarters and American Special Forces camp is overrun by a full Vietcong regiment. U.S. air attacks eventually drive the Vietcong away.

1965 6-18 Ky takes power in South Vietnam as the new prime minister with Thieu functioning as official chief of state.

1965 6-18 General William Westmoreland launches the first purely offensive operation by American ground forces in Vietnam, sweeping into NLF territory just northwest of Saigon.

1965 July The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party circulates a leaflet entitled "The War on Vietnam: A McComb, Mississippi, Protest."

1965 7-8 Chicago school integration protests

1965 7-14 US spacecraft Mariner 4 flies by Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to return images from the red planet

1965 7-25 Bob Dylan is booed at the Newport Folk Festival for playing electric set with Paul Butterfield Blues Band.

1965 7-28 President Johnson announces he will send 44 combat battalions to Vietnam. Monthly draft calls are doubled to 35,000.

1965 7-30 LBJ signs Medicare bill

1965 8-6 Aniwar protestors attempt to stop troop trains on the Santa Fe railroad tracks in West Berkeley and Emeryville by standing on the tracks.

1965 8-10  Voting Rights Act

1965 8-11,17 Watts Rebellion

1965 8-13 First issue of The Berkeley Barb published

1965 8-17 Operation Starlite. In this, the first major battle of the Vietnam War, the United States scores a resounding victory. Ground forces, artillery from Chu Lai, ships and air support combine to kill nearly 700 Vietcong soldiers. U.S. forces sustain 45 dead and more than 200 wounded.

1965 8-31 President Johnson signs a law criminalizing draft card burning.

1965 9-5 San Francisco writer Michael Fallon applies the term "hippie" to the San Francisco counterculture in an article about the Blue Unicorn coffeehouse where LEMAR (Legalize Marijuana) & the Sexual Freedom League meet, and hippie houses.

1965 9-16 Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta found the United Farm Workers association, in Delano, Calif. Huerta becomes the first woman to lead such a union. Under their leadership, the UFW joins a strike started by Filipino grape pickers in Delano. The Grape Boycott becomes one of the most significant social justice movements for farm workers in the United States.

1965 9-24 President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time.

1965 10-3 Immigration Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, in actuality fundamentally reshaped American Immigration for the remainder of the twentieth century

1965 10-16 100,000 anti-war protesters nationwide in 80 cities. New York, police make the 1st arrest under a new Federal draft card-burning law.

1965 10-22 A demonstration against the war in Sydney, Australian results in 65 arrests.

1965 Nov. Anti-war demonstrations are widespread in the U.S.

1965 11-2  Quaker Norman Morrison set himself on fire and died outside Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara’s Pentagon office, a scene McNamara witnessed

1965 11- 9  Catholic Worker Roger LaPorte immolated himself opposite the United Nations building as an anti-war protest

1965 11-14,18  Heavy Fighting at Ia Drang Valley

1965 11-17 Elements of the 66th North Vietnamese Regiment moving east toward Plei Mei encounter and ambush an American battalion. Neither reinforcements nor effective firepower can be brought in. When fighting ends that night, 60 percent of the Americans were casualties, and almost one of every three soldiers in the battalion had been killed.

1965 11-27 some 40,000 protesters led by several student activist groups surrounded the White House, calling for an end to the war, then marched to the Washington Monument. On that same day, President Johnson announced a significant escalation of US involvement in Indochina, from 120,000 to 400,000 troops.

1965 The Autobiography of Malcolm X and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man are published.

1965 12-10 The Warlocks change their name to The Grateful Dead

1965 12-31 181,00 U.S. Troops

1966 1-2 Strike of public transportation workers in New York City

1966 1-8 U.S. forces launch Operation Crimp. Deploying nearly 8,000 troops, it is the largest American operation of the war. The goal of the campaign is to capture the Vietcong's headquarters for the Saigon area, which is believed to be located in the district of Chu Chi. Though the area in Chu Chi is razed and repeatedly patrolled, American forces fail to locate any significant Vietcong base.

1966 1-14 March on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond

1966 1-28 US military adopts the tactic of Search and Destroy as the standard operating procedure in South Vietnam

1966 Feb. Master Sgt. Donald Duncan publishes "The Whole Thing was a Lie" a stinging rebuke of US involvement in Vietnam in Ramparts.

1966 Feb. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by Sen. J. William Fulbright, holds televised hearings examining America's policy in Vietnam.

1966 Feb. U.S. forces launch four search and destroy missions in the month of February. Although there are two minor clashes with Vietcong regiments, there are no major conflicts.

1966 2-5 The White House rebuffs a group of veterans who attempted to return their medals and honorable discharge papers as a protest against the Vietnam war.

1966 2-16. Veterans Stage Anti-War Rally a group of about 100 veterans attempted to return their decorations to the White House in protest of the war, but were turned back.

 1966 2-19 Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin perform at the Fillmore

1966 3-3 GI Bill grants veterans rights to education, housing, health and jobs

1966 3-5 The 272nd Regiment of the Vietcong 9th Division attack a battalion of the American 3rd Brigade at Lo Ke. U.S. air support succeeds in bombing the attackers into retreat. Two days later, the American 1st Brigade and a battalion of the 173rd Airborne are attacked by a Vietcong regiment, which is driven away by artillery fire.

1966 3-17 Cesar Chavez embarked on a peregrinación, Spanish for pilgrimage, which was a three hundred mile march from Delano California to the state’s capital of Sacramento.

1966 3-26 Anti-Vietnam war protests in NY bring out 25,000 on 5th Ave. Other protests in 7 US cities and 7 foreign cities.     Second International Day of Protest Against the Vietnam War.

1966 4-10 SDS National Council decides to distribute a "National Vietnam Exam" to all students taking the first Selective Service deferment test on May 14.

1966 4-12 B-52's strike NV for first time near Mu Gia Pass

1966 4-12 NY Stock Exchange hit with anti-war leaflets

1966 4-30 30 Mississippi blacks build tent city under President Johnson's window to protest housing conditions in their state

1966 5-14 South Vietnam in a state of virtual civil war as military units loyal to Prime Minister Ky battle renegade South Vietnamese Buddhist troops in DaNang and Hue.

1966 5-15 another large demonstration, with 10,000 picketers calling for an end to the war, took place outside the White House and the Washington Monument.

1966 Late May - June,  In late May 1966, the North Vietnamese 324B Division crosses the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and encounters a Marine battalion. The NVA holds their ground and the largest battle of the war to date breaks out near Dong Ha. Most of the 3rd Marine Division, some 5,000 men in five battalions, heads north. In Operation Hastings, the Marines backed by South Vietnamese Army troops, the heavy guns of U.S. warships and their artillery and air power drive the NVA back over the DMZ in three weeks.

1966 6-6 James Meredith is shot while trying to march across Mississippi

1966 6-19 U.S. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee charges that communists have played a key role in anti-war demonstrations .

1966 6-23 RVN sieze Buddhist HQ in Siagon, bring an end a wave of protests than had begun in March with agitation against military rule.

1966 C.O.R.E. Cites "Burden On Minorities and Poor" in Vietnam

1966 6-28,30 National Organization of Women

1966 6-29 US bomb oil depots around Hanoi and Haiphong.

1966 6-30 On Route 13, which links Vietnam to the Cambodian border, American forces are brutally assaulted by the Vietcong. Only American air and artillery support prevents a complete disaster.

1966 6-30 Fort Hood Three refuse to go to Vietnam Pfc James Johnson, Pvt Dennis Mora and Pvt David Samas

1966 July Heavy fighting near Con Thien kills nearly 1,300 North Vietnamese troops.

1966 7-4 The Congress of Racial Equality calls for withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam and an end to the draft.

1966 7-18 Race Riot - Cleveland

1966 8-7  Race Riot - Lansing

1966 8-18 Quotations of Chairman Mao also called the the little red book is published in China. The Red Guard begins to wipe out western influence in China as part of the cultural revolution that is raging there.

1966 8-18 The Battle of Long Tan involing Austrlian forces

1966 9-7,9 Fort Hood 3 court martialed and found guilty of violating Article 134 of the UCMJ. Johnson and Mora sentenced to three years at Hard Labor, Johnson to five.

1966 9-14 In a new mission code-named Operation Attleboro, the U.S. 196th Brigade and 22,000 South Vietnamese troops begin aggressive search and destroy sweeps through Tay Ninh Province.

1966 Oct. The Vietcong's 9th Division, having recovered from battles from the previous July, prepares for a new offensive. Losses in men and equipment have been replaced by supplies and reinforcements sent down the Ho Chi Minh trail from North Vietnam.

1966 10-15 Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton form Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland

1966 11-5 The Walk for Love and Peace and Freedom in New York City takes place with 10,000 participants.

1966 12-31 385,000 U.S. Troops

1967 Jan - May Two North Vietnamese divisions, operating out of the DMZ that separates North and South Vietnam, launch heavy bombardments of American bases south of the DMZ. These bases include Khe Sanh, the Rockpile, Cam Lo, Dong Ha, Con Thien and Gio Linh.

1967 1-8 America forces begin Operation Cedar Falls, which is intended to drive Vietcong forces from the Iron Triangle, a 60 square mile area lying between the Saigon River and Route 13. Nearly 16,000 American troops and 14,000 soldiers of the South Vietnamese Army move into the Iron Triangle, but they encounter no major resistance. Huge quantities of enemy supplies are captured. Over 19 days, 72 Americans are killed, victims mostly of snipers emerging from concealed tunnels and booby traps. Seven hundred and twenty Vietcong are killed.

1967 1-14 20,000-30,000 people staged a "Human Be-In" anti-war event in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco

1967 2-8 Christian groups opposed to the war staged a nationwide "Fast for Peace".

1967 2-late Dow Recruiters Driven From Wisconsin Campus

1967 2-21 In one of the largest air-mobile assaults ever, 240 helicopters sweep over Tay Ninh province, beginning Operation Junction City. The goal of Junction City is to destroy Vietcong bases and the Vietcong military headquarters for South Vietnam, all of which are located in War Zone C, north of Saigon. Some 30,000 U.S. troops take part in the mission, joined by 5,000 men of the South Vietnamese Army. After 72 days, Junction City ends.

1967 3-1 Adam Clayton Powell denied House seat

1967 3-12  A three page anti-war ad appeared in The New York Times bearing the signatures of 6,766 teachers and professors.

1967 3-17 A group of antiwar citizens marched to the Pentagon to protest American involvement in Vietnam

1967 3-25 Civil rights leader Martin Luther King led a march of 5,000 against the war in Chicago, Illinois.

1967 3-26 Be-In at Central Park in NY. which 10,000 attend

1967 4-4 M. L. King's Riverside Church speech against the war.

1967 4-8,10 Black Rebellion in Nashville

1967 4-10Vietnam Week starts. Draft card burnings and anti-draft demonstrations

1967 4-15 400,000 people marched from Central Park to the UN building in New York City to protest the war, where they were addressed by critics of the war such as Benjamin Spock, Martin Luther King, and Jan Barry Crumb, a veteran of the conflict. On the same date 100,000 marched in San Francisco.

1967 4-16 Black Rebellion in Cleveland

1967 4-19 Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Seattle.

1967 4-24 American attacks on North Vietnam's airfields begin.

1967 4-24 Abbie Hoffman led a small group of protesters against both the war and capitalism who interrupted the New York Stock Exchange, causing chaos by throwing fistfuls of both real and fake dollars down from the gallery.

1967 4-28 Muhammad Ali refuses induction, had announced that he would refuse to serve early in 1966  [video]

1967 May Desperate air battles rage in the skies over Hanoi and Haiphong. America air forces shoot down 26 North Vietnamese jets, decreasing the North's pilot strength by half.

1967 5-2 British philosopher Bertrand Russell presided over the "Russell Tribunal" in Stockholm, a mock war crimes tribunal

1967 5-18,26 US forces enter the Demilitarized Zone for the first time.

1967 5-20 Flower Power Day in NYC

1967 5-27 Army admits more than 700 GIs have deserted because of their opposition to the Vietnam war

1967 Late May In the Central Highlands of South Vietnam, Americans intercept North Vietnamese Army units moving in from Cambodia. Nine days of continuous battles leave hundreds of North Vietnamese soldiers dead.

1967 6-1 VVAW is born

1967 6-12 In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Sixteen states that still banned interracial marriage at the time are forced to revise their laws.

1967 6-16  Monterey Pop Festival

1967 6-21 Summer Solstice Party in Golden Gate Park

1967 6-30 The number of US troops in Vietnam reaches 448,400.

1967 July "Summer of Love" in San Francisco

1967 7-2 Congress passes Selective Service Act reform: ends grad student deferments & puts them in a pool to be drafted in June 68

1967 7-12,16 Black rebellion in Newark

1967 7-23,30 Black rebellion in Detriot
The Detroit Riot of 1967 began when police vice squad officers executed a raid in the early morning hours of July 23, 1967 on an after hours drinking club or "blind pig" in a predominantly black neighborhoods located at Twelfth Street and Clairmount Avenue. They were expecting to round up a few patrons, but instead found 82 people inside holding a party for two returning Vietnam veterans.

Urban racial violence did plague over 100 cities in 1967. During the Spring, minor disturbances had occurred in Omaha, Louisville, Cleveland, Chicago, San Francisco, Wichita, Nashville, and Houston. Then in June, Boston and Tampa experienced serious disorders. The most devastating riot since Watts in 1965 occurred, however, in Newark, from June 12 to 17, 1967, an outburst that resulted in 25 deaths, 1,200 persons injured, and over 1,300 arrested. The following month Detroit was the site of the worst urban race riot of the decade, one that left 43 dead, over 2,000 injured and more than 3,800 arrested. Rioting continued around the country, with outbreaks in Phoenix, Washington, D.C. and New Haven, among other cities. According to a report of the Senate Permanent Committee on Investigations released in November 1967, 75 major riots occurred in that year, compared with 21 in 1966; 83 were killed in 1967, compared with 11 in 1966 and 36 in 1965.

1967 7-20,23  Black Power Conference - Newark

1967 7-26 H. Rap Brown arrested for inciting a riot in Maryland.

1967 7-27  Camp Pendleton, California--In the middle of the Detroit rebellion, two Black Marines requested a "captain's mast" meeting with their officers. They demanded to know why "Black men should fight a white man's war" in Vietnam. The brass came down hard. The soldiers were convicted of making "disloyal statements" and "advising, urging, and attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, and refusal of duty." One was sentenced to ten years, the other to six.

1967 summer Neil Armstrong and various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise awareness for space travel. According to First Man, a biography of Armstrong's life, during the tour, several college students protested the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.

1967 8-28 US representative Tim Lee Carter R-KY stated before congress: "Let us now, while we are yet strong, bring our men home, every man jack of them. The Vietcong fight fiercely and tenaciously because it is their land and we are foreigners intervening in their civil war. If we must fight, let us fight in defense of our homeland and our own hemisphere."

1967 10-8 Ernesto "Che" Guevara was put to death by Bolivian soldiers, trained, equipped and guided by U.S. Green Beret and CIA operatives.

1967 10-20 Stop the Draft Week resulted in major clashes at the Oakland, California induction center, and saw more than a thousand registrants return their draft cards in events across the country. The cards were delivered to the Justice Department on October 20.

1967 10-21 March on Pentagon a large demonstration took place at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. As many as 100,000 demonstrators attended the event, and at least 30,000 later marched to the Pentagon for another rally and an all night vigil. Some, including Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, attempted to "exorcise" and "levitate" the building, while others engaged in civil disobedience on the steps of the Pentagon, interrupted by clashes with soldiers and police. In all, 647 arrests were made. When a plot to airdrop 10,000 flowers on the Pentagon was foiled by undercover agents, these flowers ended up being placed in the barrels of MP's rifles, as seen in some famous photographs[5]. Norman Mailer documented the events surrounding the march on the Pentagon in his novel, Armies of the Night.

1967 Oct.  Congressman Thomas P. ("Tip") O'Neill broke publicly with President Johnson and opposed continuation of the Vietnam war. O'Neill supported Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-Minn) for president in 1968

1967 11-7 General Hershey announces crackdown on deferred college students active in anti-war demonstrations.

1967 11-29 Robert McNamara announces his resignation as Defense Secretary.

1967 11-30 Eugene McCarthy announces he is a candidate for President

1967 Dec.  "Stop the Draft" movement organized by 40 antiwar groups, nationwide protests ensue.

1967 12-5 1000 antiwar protesters try to close NYC induction center. 585 arrested including Allen Ginsberg and Dr. Benjamin Spock.

1967 12-31 486,000 U.S. troops

1968 Jan UFO Coffeehouse opens in Columbia, South Carolina

1968 1-18 Youth International Party (YIPPIE) founded. Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory, & friends pronounce themselves "Yippies"

1968 1-21,4-8 Seige of Khe Sanh. At 5:30 a.m., a shattering barrage of shells, mortars and rockets slam into the Marine base at Khe Sanh. Eighteen Marines are killed instantly, 40 are wounded. The initial attack continues for two days.

1968 Latino high school students in Los Angeles stage citywide walkouts protesting unequal treatment by the school district. Prior to the walkouts, Latino students were routinely punished for speaking Spanish on school property, not allowed to use the bathroom during lunch, and actively discouraged from going to college. Walkout participants are subjected to police brutality and public ridicule; 13 are arrested on charges of disorderly conduct and conspiracy.

1968 1-30,3-15  Tet Offensive: On the Tet holiday, Vietcong units surge into action over the length and breadth of South Vietnam. In more than 100 cities and towns, shock attacks by Vietcong sapper-commandos are followed by wave after wave of supporting troops.

1968 2-1 General Loan publicly executes an NVA prisoner in front of an NBC news crew and an A. P. photographer.

1968 2-8 3 Black Students killed by police - Orangeburg, South Carolina

1968 2-8 George Wallace mounts a third-party campaign for President on a law and order platform

1968 2-14 80+ students sitin against Dow Chemical at Wish. U. 4 are charge by university including Clay

1968 2-23 Over 1,300 artillery rounds hit the Marine base at Khe Sanh and its outposts, more than on any previous day of attacks.

1968 2-27 Walter Cronkite declares, on the evening news, that he cannot see the Vietnam war ending as anything but a stalemate.  

Battle for Hue

1968 3-6 While Marines wait for a massive assault, NVA forces retreat into the jungle around Khe Sanh. For the next three weeks, things are relatively quiet around the base.

1968 3-11 Massive search and destroy sweeps are launched against Vietcong remnants around Saigon and other parts of South Vietnam.

1968 3-12 anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy received more votes than expected in the New Hampshire Primary, wins 42% of the vote

1968 3-16 Massacre of 200 - 500 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.

1968 3-16 Robert F. Kennedy announces candidacy for President.

1968 3-17 Major rally outside the US Embassy in London's Grosvenor Square turned to a riot with 86 people injured and over 200 arrested. Over 10,000 had rallied peacefully in Trafalgar Square but met a police barricade outside the embassy.

1968 3-22 Without warning, a massive North Vietnamese barrage slams into Khe Sanh. More than 1,000 rounds hit the base, at a rate of a hundred every hour. At the same time, electronic sensors around Khe Sanh indicate NVA troop movements. American forces reply with heavy bombing.

1968 3-31 LBJ Announces He Won't Run

1968 4-4 MLK Slain in Memphis

1968 4-6 Oakland Police ambush Black Panthers. Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver arrested with a bullet-shattered leg, while Bobby Hutton is shot and killed.

1968 4-8 U.S. forces in Operation Pegasus finally retake Route 9, ending the siege of Khe Sanh. A 77 day battle, Khe Sanh had been the biggest single battle of the Vietnam War to that point.

1968 4-4,11 Black uprisings in 125 cities 

1968 4-14 Love-in at Malibu Canyon, California.

1968 4-15 Spring Mobilization Against the war

1968 4-17 national media films the anti-war riot that breaks out in Berkeley, California. The over-reaction by the police in Berkeley is shown in Berlin and Paris, sparking reactions in those cities.

1968 4-23,30 SDS lead students take over 5 buildings at Colombia Univeristy for a week. 700 arrested

19684-24 300 Black students occupy administration building at Boston University demanding black studies and financial aid.

1968 5-4 6 American deserters hold press conference in Moscow to denounce the War.

1968 5-4,5 Wave of attacks by VC (NVA) hit 109 cities

1968 5-10 Paris Peace Talks Begin

1968 5-13,30 France swept by protests, strikes and demonstrations.

1968 5-25 First campus protest against ROTC is held at Michigan State University in East Lansing by pacifists during ROTC Field Days.

1968 May The Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM) was created in May 1968 at the Chrysler Plant in Hamtramck. This organization sought to put Blacks in higher positions and make physicians available on sight.

1968 June Oleo Strut Coffeehouse opens

1968 June Khe Sanh closes

1968 6-5 Robert Kennedy Assassinated

1968 7-1 Phoenix Program launched.

1968 7-8 DRUM led a wildcat strike against conditions in the Hamtramck plant.

1968 7-15,18 The 9 for Peace publicly announce they had resigned from the US military and begin a 48 hour service of liberation and communion.

1968 7-28 South Vietnamese opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government.

1968 8-8 Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew nominated during Miami riots.

1968 8-23 At Fort Hood a hundred Black soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division gathered to discuss the situation. 43 GIs then publicly announced that if called they would refuse to go to Chicago for riot duty during the Democratic National Convention. Over half of the Fort Hood 43 were Vietnam combat veterans. They were arrested--and faced possible execution for mutiny. Given the explosive atmosphere in the military and throughout society, the brass decided to hush up the mutiny instead and the soldiers received light sentences and transfers.

1968 8-23 Gypsy Peterson, editor of the Fatigue Press, and Josh Gould, manager of the Oleo Strut are busted as they left Killeen to go the the Democratic Convention.

1968 8-26,29 Upheaval at Democratic Convention in Chicago

1968 8-29,30 Long Binh Jail rebellion

1968 10-2 Mexican military fire upon protesting students, killing 200.

1968 10-4 Shelter Half GI coffeehouse opens in Tacoma.

1968 10-10 Lt [jg] Susan Schnall 'bombs' US Naval installations in and around San Francisco with 20,000 leaflets announcing GI & Vets March for Peace in San Francisco.

1968 10-11 Pvt Richard Bunch, 19, was shot in the back and killed trying to escape from the Presidio Stockade.

1968 10-12 GI & Vets March for Peace - San Francisco

1968 10-14 In protest of the killing of Richard Bunch, 27 prisoners at the Presidio staged a brief sit-down strike during Morning Roll Call demanding to see the Correction Officer to present a list of grievances.

1968 10-16 Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise fists for Black Power at Summer Olymics

1968 10-29 Counterpoint, the newspaper of the GI-Civilian Alliance for Peace at Ft. Lewis, first appears.

1968 10-31 LBJ annouces end of bombing of NV. Operation Rolling Thunder comes to an end. In total, the campaign had cost more than 900 American aircraft. Eight hundred and eighteen pilots are dead or missing, and hundreds are in captivity.

1968 11-5 Shirley Chisholm was elected America's first black woman to Congress

1968 11-6 San Francisco State University - student strike.

1968 12-2 Student strike - New York High Schools.

1968 12-31 536,100 U.S. troops

1969 1-17 Los Angeles Panther Captain Bunchy Carter and Deputy Minister John Huggins were killed in Campbell Hall on the UCLA campus, in a gun battle with members of US Organization

1969 1-19 GIs at Ft. Sam Houston publish a pro-Panther pamphlet, calling for "Black Power".

1969 1-22 Strike at U.C. Berkeley for ethnic studies

1969 Feb. Student strikes and sit-ins - Berkeley, Harvard, Howard University, Penn State, Rice, University of Massachussetts, University of Wisconsin, University of Chicago

1969 2-3 Harvard University faculty votes to deny credit for ROTC courses and to deny ROTC officers recognition as members of the faculty. —Yale in New Haven, Conn., follows suit

1969 2-4 Yasser Arafat appointed chairmaan of the Palestinian Liberation Organization

1969 2-5 Reagan declares a "State of Extreme Emergeny" in California.

1969 2-13 33 students arrested at administration building sit-in at University of Massachusetts

1969 2-16 Antiwar protest in downtown Seattle, part of a national plan for Easter protests, led by 200 GIs. Speakers include Andy Stapp of the ASU, historian Sidney Lens, and Howard Petrick from the SMC.

1969 2-18 Students seize building and boycott started at Howard University.

1969 2-23,24 VC rocket attacks against 115 bases. In a major offensive, assault teams and artillery attack American bases all over South Vietnam, killing 1,140 Americans. At the same time, South Vietnamese towns and cities are also hit. The heaviest fighting is around Saigon, but fights rage all over South Vietnam.

1969 2-24 Students occupy Adminstartion building at Penn State.

1969 2-27 Police charge student picket lines, club and arrest two Chicano leaders at U.C. Berkeley.

1969 2-27 Thousands rampage thru nine buildings at U of Wisconsin, Madison over black enrollments.

1969 3-5 Senate Committee reports that in the year ending June 30 1968 “a GI deserted on average once every ten minutes” and a GI went AWOL approximately every 3 minutes.

1969 3-13 Senior US military commanders order investigations into reports that the Black Panther Party might be organizing and recruiting among the troops in Vietnam.

1969 3-15 Presidio 27 demonstration in San Francisco, speakers include Susan Schnall and Terence Hallinan.

1969 3-18 "Operation Menu,” the secret bombing Cambodia, begins.

1969 Late Feb. 1,000 students protest ROTC at the State University of New York in Buffalo

1969 3-28 Founders of The Shelter Half Coffeehouse arrested for "contributing to the delinquecy of a minor."

1969 April Armed Services Committee discloses that 53,357 servicemen have been classified as deserters.

1969 4-4 “Pain the Brass Night,” where civilians leaflet at Ft. Lewis about the upcoming weekend of antiwar events.

1969 4-5,6 The only major anti-war demonstration in the early months of the Nixon presidency occurred April 5th and 6th
April 5-6: “Antiwar Basic Training Days” conference at the Moore Theater in downtown Seattle, sponsored by GI-CAP. Speakers include Aaron Dixon from the Black Panther Party, Native American activist Sidney Mills, Ann Fetter from the ACLU, and Bill Massy from the Young Socialist Alliance.
April 5: Large GI-civilian Easter demonstrations in New York City (100,000); San Francisco (40,000); Chicago (30,000).

1969 4-9 SDS torches a Marine Corps classroom at Harvard. Demanding an end to ROTC, 40 SDS members take over the religion lounge at nearby Northeastern University

1969 4-9,22 Student strike - Harvard. 300 Harvard students led by SDS seize Univ Hall and evict eight deans April 10 - Police called into Harvard, 37 injured, 200 arrested April 11 - Start of 3 day student strike at Harvard April 22 - Harvard faculty votes to create black studies program & give students vote in selection of its faculty.

1969 4-15 Thousands of students march on the University of California—Berkeley’s ROTC building, sparking a five-hour battle with police.

1969 4-22 City College of NY closed after black & Puerto Rican students lock selves inside asking higher minority enrollment

1969 4-24 U.S. B-52s launch the biggest attack yet on North Vietnam. As a result there are protests ensuing around the country.

1969 4-30 US troop levels in South Vietnam peak at 543,000

1969 5-4 GI-CAP’s clambake fundraiser at Point Defiance in Tacoma

1969 5-4 Hal Muskat transferred from Fort Dix, to Fort Lee, for involvement in the distribution of underground newspapers on post.

1969 5-6 SDS sets fire to the ground floor of the ROTC building at Harvard. Stanford University ROTC building also burned by students.

1969 5-10,20 Hamburger Hill

1969 5-14,15 People's Park - Berkeley,May 15 - Hippies in People's Park in Berkeley attacked by police and National Guard.

1969 5-17 GI-CAP celebrates Armed Forces Day by handing out antiwar leaflets at Seattle Center.

1969 May GIs serving with the 101st Airborne, in Vietnam, publish Statement in Support of the Presidio 27

1969 May The New York Times breaks the story about the secret bombing of Cambodia. In response Nixon orders illegal wiretapping of journalists.

1969 6-6,8 PRG formed in South Vietnam

1969 6-7 Fred Hampton and Black Panthers announce "Rainbow Coalition" Groups involved included Black Panther Party, Brown Berets, I Wor Kuen and their successors the Red Guard Party, White Panther Party, Gray Panthers, Youth International Party, The Patriot Party, Young Patriots Organization, American Indian Movement, Students for a Democratic Society, Gay Liberation Front, Symbionese Liberation Army, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Weather Underground and Young Lords

1969 6-8 Nixon annouces Vietnamization. President Nixon meets with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu on Midway Island in the Pacific, and announces that 25,000 U.S. troops will be withdrawn immediately.

1969 Summer Black GIs from Fort Lewis’ Third Cavalry Division walk out of riot control classes en masse, receiving no punishment because of commanders’ fears of creating a potentially explosive incident.

1969 June The GI Press Service is formed by the Student Mobilization Committee as an “associated press” of the GI underground newspapers, serving as a national disseminator of articles and publishing national roundup issues.

1969 6-10 GI-CAP, the Young Socialist Alliance, and the Seattle Antiwar Action Movement demonstrate during a “welcome home” parade for troops returning from Vietnam, with signs that read “Welcome home—We’ll stay in the streets until all of the GIs are home.”

1969 6-18,22 SDS National Conference in Chicago ends in chaos as the organization splits into two ideologially incompatable factions.

1969 6-20 Roger Priest charged with violating 14 specifications under 4 articles of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, for statements and articles published in the first 3 issues of OM.

1969 6-28 Stonewall Riots - New York

1969 7-10 800 GIs parade in Seattle for returning soldiers.

1969 7-13 GI-CAP’s aquatic invasion of Ft Lewis, across American Lake, to “liberate” GIs.

1969 7-20 Apollo 11 landed on the moon

1969 8-15,16,17 The Woodstock Festival

1969 8-20 Bobby Seale arrested in Oakland for murder of Alex Rachey, charges were later dropped

1969 8-24 Combat Refusal - Company A of the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry.

1969 8-30 Fort Knox Coffeehouse opens

1969 9-3 Ho Chi Minh dies

1969 9-11 Richard Chase refuses to participate in riot control training - Fort Hood.

1969 9-23 Puerto Rican youth in Chicago form the Young Lords Organization

1969 9-24 Chicago Seven trial begins

1969 10-6 Weathermen blow up police statue in Haymarket Square - Chicago.

1969 10-8,11Days of Rage - Chicago

1969 10-15 "First Vietnam Moratorium" - An estimated 1 million Americans across the US participated in anti-war demonstrations, protest rallies and peace vigils. 50 members of the US Congress also participated

1969 10-15 100 SDS members ransack the Air Force ROTC office at Buffalo, burning its files and books. At Kent State University in Ohio, SDS members run alongside cadets, screaming, “Kill, Kill, Kill!” Harvard’s student newspaper, Crimson, comes out in favor of a Viet Cong victory.

1969 10-20 Antiwar meeting at Cascadian Service Club, on base at Fort Lewis, raided.

1969 10-30 The Supreme Court orders desegregation nationwide

1969 11-3 President Nixon says he plans withdrawal of all US troops on a secret timetable

1969 11-12 Pfc Leonard Wathen, a GI at Fort Lewis and member of the ASU, refuses an order to serve on a riot control force, leading to a court-martial and sentence, on January 12, 1971, to six months in the stockade.

1969 11-13 Reports of the My Lai massacre (which took place on March 16, 1968) surface.

1969 11-15 2nd Moratorium - More than 250,000 protest the War in Washington DC

1969 11-20 Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board decides to put the Shelter Half coffeehouse in Tacoma on trial.

1969 Nov. Sam Melville, Jane Alpert, and several others bombed several corporate offices and military installations (including the Whitehall Army Induction Center) in and around New York City in opposition to the war in Vietnam. Melville was a leader in Attica and was killed.

1969 12-1 The first draft lottery in 27 years was held at Selective Service Headquarters in Washington, DC

1969 12-4 Fred Hampton murdered

1969 12-8 Police raid on L.A. Black Panthers resulting in a four hour shoot-out.

1969 12-11 The Shelter Half receives letter from the Army threatening to declare them “off limits” to soldiers.

1969 12-18 ASU members questioned by military police for passing out Fed Up at SeaTac Airport.

1969 12-20 Pvt Richard Chase convicted and sentenced to two years hard labor at Leavenworth and Dishonorable Discharge.

1969 12-27,30 Weatherman National War Council - Flint Michigan

1969 12-31 474,000 U.S. troops

1970 January  "Washington Monthly Magazine" described an intelligence network of "nearly 1,000 plain clothes investigators working out of some 200 offices from coast to coast" who wrote reports on "political protests of all kinds". The domestic intelligence operation stored and disseminated information on both groups and individuals who "might cause trouble of the US Army." Senator Ervin reported in December 1970 that he was informed the surveillance included 800 Illinois citizens including Senator Adlai Stevenson, III (D-ILL), Rep. Abner Mikua (D-ILL) and US Circuit Judge Otto Kerner. Ervin said "apparently anyone who in the Army's definition was 'left of center' was a prospective candidate for political surveillance." During lengthly Senate hearings on the Army's activities, Defense Secretary Laird ordered the spying stopped.

1970 Early The national Movement for a Democratic Military forms, and gains much early support from Navy sailors.

1970 1-2 Supreme Court rules General Lewis Hershey's 1967 directive, that local draft boards reclassify anti-draft demonstrators as eligible for active duty (1-A) unconstitutional.

1970 1-5 Supreme Court upholds prohibition of underground GI anti-war newspaper at Fort Bragg.

1970 1-21 The Shelter Half, ASU, SDS, and other antiwar activists hold a “Trial of the Army” at the University of Washington’s HUB ballroom to put the Army, not the Shelter Half, on trial for genocide. Cancelled the next day.

1970 Feb. Hew-Kekaw-Na-Yo (meaning “to resist,” later renamed Hey-Tra-Sneyo) all-Native American radical GI organization formed at Fort Lewis, with a short-lived newspaper Yah-Hoh.

1970 2-4 Riot in Isla Vista, Calif. protesting Chicago verdicts

1970 2-18,19 Chicago Seven acquitted of conspiracy charges, Dellinger, Davis, Hayden, Hoffman, & Rubin found guilty of crossing state lines to incite riot

1970 2-19 Explosions in 3 office buildings in NY; and in Calif; Wash; Maryland; Mich, possibly done by the Weathermen

1970 2-22 ROTC building at Washington University is burned

1970 2-25 Isla Vista, Santa Barbara Bank of America bombed

1970 2-26 1,000 students attack ROTC offices on the Buffalo campus.

1970 2-26 U.S. Army discontinues surveillance of civilian demonstrations

1970 2-27 West Point graduate, 1st Lt. Louis Font, asks to be released from military service because its actions in Vietnam counter his religious beliefs.

1970 2-28 GI demonstration at Fort Lewis to protest the military’s “kidnapping” of Bruce McLean, a soldier and ASU member taken from his cell in the stockade and shipped to Vietnam with little notice.

1970 3-6 Three Weathermen blow themselves up in Greenwich Village.

1970 3-8 Actress and antiwar figure Jane Fonda visits Fort Lewis and is detained for “questioning” by military authorities. Later in the evening Fonda visits the Shelter Half coffeehouse, and holds a press conference in Seattle the following day.

1970 3-9 ASU chapter at Fort Lewis breaks from the national organization and reorganizes as the Independent Servicemen’s Movement, continuing to publish Fed Up and hoping to work with the national Movement for a Democratic Military.

1970 3-12 Students ignite a bonfire in front of the ROTC building at Buffalo. Chanting “Ho, Ho, Ho Chi Minh—NLF is Gonna Win!” they burn a U.S. flag.

1970 3-14  Hey-Tra-Sneyo, ISM GIs, civilians, and Northwest and Alcatraz Indians picket at the Madigan gate of Fort Lewis as an extension of the occupation of Fort Lawton, laying claim to the soon-to-be-abandoned army base for Native American tribes.

1970 3-18 Cambodian coup, Prince Sihanouk deposed

1970 3-22 San Diego MDM open house, attended by Jane Fonda and Robert Ryan of the Black Panther Party.

1970 3-23 President Nixon orders 24,000 troops from Ft Dix and McGuire Air Force Base to New York City to break postal workers strike.

1970 March/April SDS firebombs the ROTC building at the University of Colorado—Boulder.

1970 April Ohio State University at Columbus is wracked by violent confrontations over ROTC.

1970 4-7 Referring to student unrest, Ronald Reagan, Gov. of Calif: "If it takes a bloodbath, let's get it over with."

1970 4-15 National Moratorium Day protests around the country; in Seattle, soldiers at Fort Lewis in the ASU organize a mess hall strike.

1970 4-18 Large antiwar demonstration in Seattle, drawing around 6,000 people.

1970 4-22 1st Earth Day

1970 4-28 Three staff members of the UFO Coffeehouse sentenced to six years in prison.

1970 4-30 Students firebomb ROTC buildings at Maryland, Michigan State, Washington, Wisconsin and Yale universities.

1970 4-30 Nixon orders US troops into Cambodia. South Vietnamese troops attack into Cambodia, pushing toward Vietcong bases. Two days later, a U.S. force of 30,000 -- including three U.S. divisions -- mount a second attack. Operations in Cambodia last for 60 days.

1970 5-2 Anti-war demonstrations breakout at many U.S. campuses, 1,000 students set fire to the ROTC building at Kent State. Torching it a second time that night, it is destroyed. During the first week of May alone, ROTC buildings explode or ignite at the rate of more than four a day.

1970 5-5  4 Kent State college students were shot to death by Ohio National Guardsmen during an anti-war protest on the campus. This lead to widening anti-war protests

1970 5-5 Air Force ROTC building at Washington University was burned

1970 5-6 Students firebomb ROTC offices on the Buffalo campus.

1970 May Iowa State University (ISU) in Ames, Iowa, was one of over thirteen hundred colleges and universities that held protests during May 1970

1970 May Army issues new regulations allowing mustaches and sideburns.

1970 5-7  - Stanford University, ROTC building destoyed by fire again

1970 5-8 Construction workers attack antiwar demonstrators, Wall St., NY

1970 5-8 Anti-Vietnam War protesters stage the first moratorium marches in Australian cities (70,000 in Melbourne, and about 120,000 throughout Australia).

1970 5-9  A peaceful anti-war rally held at the Ellipse in Washington, DC was attended by about 80,000 people including about 10 members of Congress [75,000-100,000 to protest Cambodia escalation

1970 5-14,15 Student unrest - Jackson State University. Two students killed.

1970 5-15,16 “Armed Farces Day” demonstrations organized by GIs at seventeen locations around the country.

1970 5-29,31 National GI antiwar conference in Atlanta, Georgia.

1970 June Pentagon admits it cannot account for 80,000 GIs

1970 6-11 Daniel Berrigan arrested by FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy

1970 6-26,27 Six antiwar GIs at Fort Lewis publicly refuse to be sent to Vietnam, possibly the largest action to date at any Army Shipment Center on grounds of conscientious objection, and become known as the “Fort Lewis Six.”

1970 6-29  Private Willie Williams, a black GI at Fort Lewis, is court-martialed for presenting an antiwar statement and poster to his commanding officer, and sentenced despite a June 19 rally at the Shelter Half in his support.

1970 8-3 Margaret Kuhn start Gray Panthers to protest discrimination against elderly

1970 8-24 the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Sterling Hall bombing.

1970 8-29 The Chicano Moratorium: on August 29, some 25,000 Mexican-Americans participated in the largest anti-war demonstration in Los Angeles. Police attacked the crowd with billyclubs and teargas; two people were killed. Immediately after the marchers were dispersed, sheriff's deputies raided a nearby bar, where they shot and killed Ruben Salazar, KMEX news director and Los Angeles Times columnist, with a tear-gas projectile.

1970 9-4,7 Operation R.A.W. (Rapid American Withdrawal), 75 mile march from Morristown, NJ to Valley Forge, PA. Stage simulated search and destroy missions along way to dramatize the horror of the Vietnam War.

1970 9-18 About 100,000 people take part in a second moratorium march in Australia.

1970 9-18 Jimi Hendrix dies.

1970 10-4 Janis Joplin dies

1970 10-13 Angela Davis arrested on kidnapping, murder and conspiracy charges

1970 10-16 State of Emergency declared in Canada.

1970 11-3 Allende becomes president of Chile.

1970 Kissinger and Le Duc Begin Secret Talks

1970 12-7 South Africa expelled from UN

1970 12-14 The military declares Fort Lewis a closed base to civilians.

1970 12-22 Cooper-Church Amendment to Defense Appropriations Bill forbids use of US ground forces in Laos and Cambodia.

1970 12-31 335,800 U.S. troops

1970-71 Academic Year: 110 campus incidents against the ROTC occur compared to 400 in 1969-70

1971 Jan. Military launches an experiment to transition the Army from draft-based induction to an all-volunteer force, a program called VOLAR; The 3rd Armored Cavalry at Fort Lewis was one of three units nationwide chosen for the VOLAR experiment.

1971 1-4 Nixon declares that an end to the war is in sight.

1971 1-12 Rev. Philip Berrigan and 5 others indicted for conspiracy to kidnap Henry Kissinger and bomb federal buildings

1971 1-12  Ralph Nader forms Earth Act group

1971 1-13 President Nixon signs a bill repealing the Gulf of Tonkin resolution

1971 1-31,2 Vietnam Veterans Against the War’s “Winter Soldier” hearings held in Detroit.

1971 2-8 In Operation Lam Son 719, three South Vietnamese divisions drive into Laos to attack two major enemy bases. Unknowingly, they are walking into a North Vietnamese trap. Over the next month, more than 9,000 South Vietnamese troops are killed or wounded. More than two thirds of the South Vietnamese Army's armored vehicles are destroyed, along with hundreds of U.S. helicopters and planes.

1971 2-13 Private Wade Carson, an ASU member, is court-martialed and convicted for attempting to distribute Fed Up on post. The prosecution’s case was flimsy, and Carson was being prosecuted more for his active role in the ASU and organizing on the other bases to which he was transferred as punishment.

1971 2-18 FTA formed by Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland.

1971 3-1 Bomb explodes in Capitol men's room - Washington DC. The Weathermern claim responsibility "in retaliation for the Laos decision"

1971 3-5 Pakistani army occupy East Pakistan

1971 3-15 Billy Smith arrested and accused of fragging two officers at Bien Hoa.

1971 3-23 Puget Sound Sound Off, an antiwar paper, debuts from the Puget Sound Naval Complex in Bremerton, initiated by active duty soldiers and officers  from the Concerned Officers Movement (COM).

1971 3-23 Coup - Argentina.

1971 3-29 Lt. William Calley found guilty for his involvement in My Lai massacre. Charles Manson sentenced to death.

1971 3-30  It was later found out that on this date; "a confidential Army directive orders personnel to intercept and confiscate personal mail containing anti-war and other dissident material sent to soldiers in Vietnam."

1971 4-1 Nixon orders Lt. Calley be released pending his appeal.

1971 4-7  During a speech, President Nixon said that in relation to setting a firm date for troop withdrawal, that it would "serve the enemy's purpose, not our own."

1971 4-11 Protest and all-night vigil in downtown Bremerton, organized by the Navy’s Concerned Officers’ Movement, as the Navy supercarrier USS Constellation (nicknamed “Connie”) set sail from the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a scheduled bombing mission in Southeast Asia. The Connie would become the focus of larger protests during a stop in San Diego, and en route, as crew members became part of the “Save Our Ship” (SOS) antiwar movement and held protests on board ships.

1971 4-13,14 FTA Show performs at Haymarket Square coffee house (Cast includes Peter Boyle, Barbara Dane, Jane Fonda, Dick Gregory and Donald Sutherland).

1971 4-18  2,300 Vietnam Veterans came to Washington, DC to participate in Dewey Canyon III, "a military incursion into the country of Congress". Led by Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), the vets camped on the mall 1/4 mile from the Capitol, and threw away military medals and ribbons at the foot of the statue of Chief Justice John Marshall.

1971 4-24  1000 active duty GIs lead up to 500,00 anti-war protesters converge upon Washington, D.D.; at least 150,000 take part in a similar demonstration in San Francisco
10 days of protests by a group calling themselves the "Mayday Tribe" included attempted work stoppages at several federal offices in Washington, DC

1971 4-46 50,000 demonstrators in Washington D.C. set up "Algonquin Peace City"

1971 5-1,3 National antiwar May Day actions called; at Fort Lewis on May 3, the GIA organizes a “sick in” strike of active duty men, which is partially successful; antiwar rallies scheduled in Seattle (May 1) and Tacoma (May 2).

1971 5-3 5,100 policemen backed by 10,000 federal troops resulted in an unprecedented mass arrest of approximately 7,000 persons, with another 2,700 arrested the next day. Protests ended 5 May with the arrest of another 1,200 demonstrators on the Capitol's east steps during a rally attended by some members of Congress

1971 5-3 “FTA,” an antiwar musical/comedy/political show, featuring Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland, performed at University of Puget Sound.

1971 5-4  Antiwar teach-in at the University of Puget Sound.

1971 5-5 University of Washington/Washington State University memorials held for Kent and Jackson State students killed by police; May Day actions continue with a march and rally in Bremerton, where the Bremerton mayor signs an “anti-Viet Nam war statement.”

1971 5-5 Riot control units of the 82nd Airborne Division are deployed in Washington DC to “preserve law and order” as 50,000 anti war protestors  descend on the Capital to “Stop the Government”.

1971 5-11 Indian occupation of Alcatraz ends after 19 months

1971 5-15 Second “Armed Farces Day” activities held, the largest united nationwide action of the GI movement, with protests at 19 separate posts (including Air Force and Navy); at Fort Lewis, over 700 army and McChord airmen attend the two-day people’s fair organized by the GIA; in Bremerton, members of the COM and veterans leaflet the Bremerton Armed Forces Day parade.

1971 5-22 At Travis Air Force Base in Northern California, a mass rebellion among mostly African American airmen results in the arrest of 135 airmen, the largest mass rebellion in Air Force history. The events at Travis spark the formation of the Coromantee Brothers Council among black airmen at McChord, who launched a series of anti-discrimination programs aimed at off-base housing, legal counseling, and greater participation in base cultural/educational activities, and sponsored a visit from the Seattle Black Panther Party.

1971 6-13 NY Times starts publishing  Pentagon Papers

1971 June the Armed Forces Journal [Col. Robert D. Heinl ,"The Collapse of the Armed Forces"], reported: "The morale, discipline and battle-worthiness of the U.S. Armed Forces are, with a few salient exceptions, lower and worse than at any time in this century and possibly in the history of the United States. By every conceivable indicator, our army that now remains in Vietnam is in a state approaching collapse, with individual units avoiding or having refused combat, murdering their officers and noncommissioned officers, drug-ridden and dispirited where not near-mutinous. Elsewhere than Vietnam, the situation is nearly as serious."

1971 6-30  Six GIs and ten civilians arrested for distributing the Declaration of Independence at Fort Lewis as an act of protest.

1971 6-30 About 110,000 demonstrate in State capitals of Australia.

1971 8-18 Australia and New Zealand announce the withdrawal of their troops from Vietnam.

1971 8-21 George Jackson killed.

1971 8-22 The Camden 28 conducted a raid on the Camden, New Jersey, draft board offices.

1971 9-1 The Shelter Half coffeehouse moves to a second location in Tacoma (1902 Tacoma Ave South). Fed Up stops appearing regularly.

1971 9-9,13 Prison riot - Attica.

1971 9-28 Stop Our Ship Referendum - citizens of San Diego are asked to decide whether the USS Constellation should remain at homeport or sail for Vietnam.

1971 10-10,11 Combat refusal - Firebase Pace.

1971 10-20 United States Congressional Committee on Internal Security begins the first of a three-part series of investigative hearings into the GI movement, with a focus on activity at Fort Lewis (published in the summer of 1972).

1971 10-25 Mass arrest of GIs, the staff of the Oleo Strut, including the director of Sir! No Sir!, and supporters for staging antiwar Veteran's Day demonstration - Killeen.

1971 12-26 Members of VVAW seize the Statue of Liberty in protest of renewed air attacks on North Vietnam.

1972 1-25 Shirley Chisholm announces her candidacy for President.

1972 2-24 After 16 months in prison, Angela Davis is released

1972 3-10,12  several thousand African Americans gathered in Gary, Indiana, for the National Black Political Convention

1972 3-22 ERA adopted by the Senate

1972 3-29 166 people, many of them seminarians, were arrested in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for encircling the Federal Courthouse with a chain, to protest the trial of the Harrisburg Seven

1972 3-30 Massed North Vietnamese Army artillery open a shattering barrage, targeting South Vietnamese positions across the DMZ. Upwards of 20,000 NVA troops cross the DMZ, forcing the South Vietnamese units into a retreat. U.S. resumes bombing.

1972 4-1 North Vietnamese soldiers push toward the city of Hue, which is defended by a South Vietnamese division and a division of U.S. Marines. But by April 9, the NVA are forced to halt attacks and resupply.

1972 4-13 In an assault spearheaded by tanks, NVA troops manage to seize control of the northern part of the city. But the 4,000 South Vietnamese men defending the city, reinforced by elite airborne units, hold their positions and launch furious counterattacks. American B-52 bombers also help with the defense. A month later, Vietcong forces withdraw.

1972 4-15 Hanoi and Haiphong bombed.

1972 4-17 3,000 students march on the ROTC building at the University of Wisconsin, smearing blood on its walls.

1972 4-19 in response to renewed escalation of bombing, students at many colleges and universities around the country broke into campus buildings and threatened strikes[14]. The following weekend, protests were held in New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and elsewhere[15].

1972 4-27 Two weeks after the initial attack, North Vietnamese forces again battle toward Quang Tri City. The defending South Vietnamese division retreats. By April 29, the NVA takes Dong Ha, and by May 1, Quang Tri City.

1972 4-28 First antiwar demonstration at McChord Air Force Base occurs.

1972 5-8 American forces mine the Hanoi and Haiphong ports.

1972 5-11Chicago 7 convictions overturned.

1972 5-13  protests again spread across the country in response to President Nixon's decision to mine harbors in North Vietnam[16] and renewed bombing of North Vietnam (Operation Linebacker).

1972 5-15 Gov. George Wallace shot during primary campaign in Maryland

1972 5-20 Armed Farces Day.

1972 6-17 Watergate breakin.

1972 July Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam.

1972 7-8 GIs picket Court of Military Appeals, Washington DC, in support of Billy Smith.

1972 7-19 With U.S. air support, the South Vietnamese Army begins a drive to recapture Binh Dinh province and its cities. The battles last until September 15, by which time Quong Tri has been reduced to rubble. Nevertheless, the NVA retains control of the northern part of the province.

1972 8-12 The last American ground troops leave SV. 43,5000 air and support remain

1971 8-23 1100 antiwar protest arrested outside Republican National Convention

1972 9-5,6 11 Israeli athletes killed at the Munich Olympics by the Black September Organization.

1972 12-13 In Paris, peace talks between the North Vietnamese and the Americans breakdown.

1972 12-18,29 "Christmas bombing" of North Vietnam. By order of the president, a new bombing campaign starts against the North Vietnamese. Operation Linebacker Two lasts for 12 days, including a three day bombing period by up to 120 B-52s. Strategic surgical strikes are planned on fighter airfields, transport targets and supply depots in and around Hanoi and Haiphong. U.S. aircraft drop more than 20,000 tons of bombs in this operation. Twenty-six U.S. planes are lost, and 93 airmen are killed, captured or missing.

1972 12-30 Bombing North of the 20th parallel is ended

1973 1-27 Last American serviceman to be killed in combat in South Vietnam, Lt. Col. William Nolde, is killed.

1973 1-28 Cease-fire Signed in Paris

1973 End of Military Draft Announced

1973 2-28,5-8 Occupation and seige of Wounded Knee

1973 2-29 The last U.S. troops leave SV

1973 3-20  VVAW members and GIs in the 864th Engineers Battalion at Fort Lewis confronted their CO and demanded more respect from officers, the removal of NCO’s who made racist remarks, better schooling opportunities and job assignments, and other quality-of-life issues. Their demands were later endorsed generally by the Army Secretary.

1973 4-4 World Trade Center opens.

1973 6-19 Congress approves Case-Church Amendment which forbids any further US military involvement in South East Asia after August 14.

1973 8-14 U.S. bombing activities in Cambodia are halted.

1973 8-31Gainsville 8 acquitted

1973 9-11 Coup - Chile.

1974 4-1 Jane Fonda arrives in Vietnam on second visit

1974 8-9  President Nixon resigns from the Presidency at noon

1974 9-4 Nixon pardoned by President Ford

1974 9-7 CIA operation against Chile's Marxist Govt. disclosed

1974 12-21 NY Times reports on CIA illegal domestic activities during Vietnam War

1974 12-26 The 7th North Vietnamese Army division captures Dong Xoai.

1975 1-6 In a disastrous loss for the South Vietnamese, the NVA take Phuoc Long city and the surrounding province.

1975 3-1 A powerful NVA offensive is unleashed in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam. The resulting South Vietnamese retreat is chaotic and costly, with nearly 60,000 troops dead or missing.

1975 3-25 Hue, South Vietnam's third largest city, falls to the North Vietnamese Army.

1975 4-29 U.S. Marines and Air Force helicopters, flying from carriers off-shore, begin a massive airlift. In 18 hours, over 1,000 American civilians and almost 7,000 South Vietnamese refugees are flown out of Saigon.

1975 4-30 Saigon falls. At 4:03 a.m., two U.S. Marines are killed in a rocket attack at Saigon's Tan Son Nhut airport. They are the last Americans to die in the Vietnam War. At dawn, the last Marines of the force guarding the U.S. embassy lift off. Only hours later, looters ransack the embassy, and North Vietnamese tanks role into Saigon, ending the war.

1976 4-25 Nationwide elections are held in Vietnam for a National Assembly of 249 deouties from the North and 243 from the South. It is claimed that 98.7 percent of the electorate votes.

1976 6-24 NA of Vietnam meets for the first time

1976 11-15 U.S. vetoes Vietnam's application to the UN on the gounds of Vietnam's 'brutal and inhumane" attutude to U.S. servicemen still listed as missing in action.

Chronology of Vietnam: Peoples Victory

Synopsis of part 1 - Vietnam: American Holocaust - old TV serial style "And now some scenes from part 1..."

Open with positive scenes of Vietnam today.
    Surely this is a victory for the people when compared with the past?
Time shift back to Vietnam before '45
    How was this victory achieved?

Vietnam's long history of struggle for independence.
Contradictions revealed by WWI lead to revolutionary & independence movements in many parts of the world. No less so in Indochina.
Also in America and especially among Blacks.
Brief history of Vietnamese struggle pre '45. - Ho Chi Minh & Communists come to the lead.
WWII lead to more revolutionary and independence movements, including among Afro-Americans.
1945 - Vietnamese declare independence and first U.S. anti-war protests that same year.
How communists organized the people for victory over the French.
Dien Bien Phu & Giap
At the same time Civil Rights struggle is building in U.S.
Two Victories: Brown vs. Board only 10 days after French defeat.
US leaders wants o gain or maintain control over 3rd world people.
Since communist are leaders in independence struggles, U.S. rulers equate communism with tyranny and portray themselves as champs of freedom & democracy.
Source of the label "Viet Cong" - psyops
Because Civil Rights struggle weaken them at home and embarrasses them internationally, they are more willing to make concessions.

1960 - Vietnamese struggle to liberate the South develops and at the same time the Civil Right struggle develops, and just behind it, an anti-war movement in U.S. and around the world.

1958 - 1965
Vietnamese Liberation Movement [VLM] - rebuilding and consolidating in the North, the South, the terror and then the slow unfolding of the armed struggle. South Vietnam is an American creation, it's leaders American puppets. In many ways it had been an American War all along. The French were not capable of an independent policy in Indochina, the U.S. footed the bill and armed the French. After Geneva [1956] the U.S. "took over payments" - Getting Vietnamese to fight Vietnamese puppet regime style with the help of 'advisers' and limited air and naval support. But it wasn't working!
In U.S., Black Liberation Movement [BLM] is developing and building the organizations, activists, and tactics of a militant mass movement in the U.S. that will lead the growing anti-war movement.
How Blacks came to view the War:
Kennedy's Polices - how the liberal rulers viewed the contradiction between Civil Rights and their War Policies, especially Re: Vietnam
Some Victories Won!
August 4, 1964 - "A Day in the Life" - both Tonkin & Mississippi Burning on WHT.

  1. Unbroken by the massive new forces thrown against it, the Vietnamese resistance grows.
  2. In the U.S. the BLM moves from reform to revolution.
  3. The Anti-War Movement [AWM] grows rapidly in mass size, organization and ideology. Together they bring in their wake a revolutionary period in the U.S. and an upsurge of many movements among other oppressed minorities, women, gays, in culture, art, music, the earth, etc.
  4. Resistance in the U.S. Military is starting to make itself felt. Oh No! "Americanization" isn't working either.

Another Victory Won: LBJ is forced to quit!

The Military Industrial Complex [MIC] needs a real Scoundrel. Enter "Secret Bombings" Nixon. That is to say secret from the people that elected him because they certainly weren't secret to the people being bombed.

1968 - 1970 The Wheels Are Coming Off the Cart.
Just when the MIC is forced use it's Army against American's as well as the Vietnamese [ and as needed in Guatemala, Columbia, etc ], the Army is looking shaky. AWOLs are up to 80,000 and officers are being fragged. Political consciousness and political organization is growing in the military.
VLM Offensive continues to develop, more and more troops are needed which leads to more and more domestic opposition.

1970-1972 A Peace is negotiated as MIC options become more and more limited.

More Victories

VLM makes rapid progress and AWM cuts more and more of the strings by which the MIC supports its puppet.
People's Victory: Saigon goes. The puppet falls down.

Vietnam Today - This is a victory for all that made this possible!