and Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.
|Black Liberation Movement Supported
||Vietnamese Liberation Movement Supported
the Vietnamese have won their Independence in 1975 without the Civil
Rights Movement in the U.S.?
a Black President even be possible now if not for the Vietnamese War of
movement propelled Anti-War movement which pressured govt to end the
||U.S. govt claims to
be defender of Freedom & Democracy in Vietnam required that they
not ignore civil rights struggle - it was embarrassing to them. U.S.
Govt was worried about International Image.
|Black militants in the military
played leading role in G.I. Resistance
Black soldiers refusing to fight
|U.S. gov 't need Black soldiers
to fight the war and so had to consider demands.
|Rebellion in the city,
revolution in the air meant U.S. govt need troops to control the
people at home. Put more pressure on the military.
||Imperialist war radicalized
A 1970 survey showed that 30.6 percent of black enlisted men in the armed forces planned "to join a militant Black group like the Panthers" when they returned home.
|Civils rights movement et al
brought international dicredit to the U.S. on another front.
||While U.S. govt makes
concessions on racism at home it exports racism & racists to SEA.
Example: Many Klansman in Vietnam - Southern Racists who were finding
their more physical and violent practises curtailed in the U.S. had the
option of taking it out on gooks and niggers in SEA.
|The Power of the People is
greater than the Man's Technology!
|No Matter how Formidable the
Enemy, People's Struggles can lead to Victory
1921 Nguyen Ai Quoc [Ho Chi Minh] wrote in Communist Review: "When hundreds of millions of ill-treated and oppressed Asians stand up to liberate themselves from the odious exploitation of greedy colonialists, they will form a gigantic force capable of helping their brothers in the West secure complere liberation by destroying one of the conditions for the exirence of capitalism, namely imperialism."
|1945 9-2 The Communist dominated
Viet Minh Independence League seizes power. Ho Chi Minh establishes the
Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (GRDV) in Hanoi.
|1945 9-26 Lt.
A. Peter Dewey became the first American soldier to die in
Vietnam. Apparently mistaken for a Frenchman, Dewey was gunned down by
Vietminh troops while driving a jeep to the airport. The son of a
former Illinois congressman, he had been the head of the American
|1945 First protests against U.S.
involvement in Vietnam take place in 1945, when United States Merchant
sailors condemn the U.S. government for the use of U.S. merchant ships to transport French troops whose express purpose is to "subjugate the native population" of Vietnam.
|1951 5-2 Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company|
|1953 8-19 Iranian
|1953 - 1958 "Operation Wetback", the U.S. Immigration Service arrests and deports more than 3.8 million Latin Americans. Many U.S. citizens are deported unfairly, including political activist Luisa Moreno and other community leaders.|
|1954 Iranian Consortium Agreement of 1954, for the first time, United States oil companies shared in the control of Iranian oil, with the U.S. and UK evenly splitting 80% and the remainder divided between French and Dutch interests|
|1954 5-7 Dien Bien
Phu falls to Viet Minh
|1955 5-10 South Vietnam formally requests U.S. Instructors for armed forces.|
|1954 5-17 Brown v. Board of Education decision handed down|
|1954 5-24 the U.S Navy created a sea blockade on Guatemala called operation HARDROCK BAKE|
|1955 7-20 South Vietnam cancels Geneva Accord elections|
|1954 10-24 Eisenhower advises
Diem that the U.S, will provide assistance directly to South Vietnam,
instead of channeling it though French authorities.
|1955 12-1 Rosa Parks won't
give up seat Montgomery Bus Boycott starts.
|1956 Feb. The pejorative “Viet
Cong,” a contraction for "Vietnamese Communists" is create by American
psyops as a substitute for "Viet Minh" and first promoted through
Saigon newspapers. according to Everett Bumgardner "A Bright
Shining Lie" p.189
|1956 2-18 While visiting Peking,
Sihanouk renounces SEATO protection for his nation.
|1956 12-20 Montgomery Bus Boycott ends
|1957 Eisenhower Sends Federal Troops to Little Rock, AK|
|1959 7-8 Major Dale R. Buis and
Master Sargeant Chester M. Ovnand become the first Americans to die in
the Vietnam War during the guerilla strike at Bienhoa
|1959 5-6 Diem issues repressive Law 10/59
|1960 Eisenhower authorizes covert actions to get rid of Castro. Among other things, the CIA tries assassinating him with exploding cigars and poisoned milkshakes. Other covert actions against Cuba include burning sugar fields, blowing up boats in Cuban harbors, and sabotaging industrial equipment.|
|1960 Early SDS formed
|1960 2-1 4 black college
students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College sat
down at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North
Carolina and refused to leave, they are then allowed to stay at the
counter, but are refused service.
|1960 3-15 The sit-ins spread to
15 cities in 5 southern states.
|1960 4-16,17 SNCC founded is founded at Shaw University|
|1960 5-6 Civil Rights Act of
|1960 Dec. NLF is formed
|1961 4-25 the Unites States
invades Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and the mission is a failure.
|1961 5-4 the Congress of
Racial Equality (CORE) begins sending student volunteers on bus trips
to test the implementation of new laws prohibiting segregation in
interstate travel facilities. One of the first two groups of "freedom
riders," encounters its first problem two weeks later, when a mob in
Alabama sets the riders' bus on fire. The program continues and by the
end of the summer 1,000 volunteers, black and white, have participated.
The Freedom Riders force integration of Interstate and Travel
facilities in the South.
|1961 Joseph Heller's Catch 22 is
|1961 9-1,4 Viet Cong carry out
series of attacks in Kontum province, SV
|1961 9-18 A viet Cong battalion
seizes the provincial capital of Phouc Vinh
|1961 11-1 Fifty thousand women
in sixty cities, mobilized by Women Strike for Peace, protest above
ground testing of nuclear bombs and tainted milk.
|1961 11-16 Kennedy increases
military aid to South Vietnam but no combat troops
|1961 10-6 President Kennedy
advises Americans to build fallout shelters.
|1962 Jan People's
Revolutionary Party in SV "it was explicitly the
"Marxist-Leninist Party of South Vietnam," and it purported to be the
"vanguard of the NLF, the paramount member." In 1962, it had some
35,000 members." pp
|1962 1-12 Operation Chopper:
America's first combat missions against the Vietcong.
|1962 6-15 The Port Huron
Statement is adopted by SDS
|1962 1-7 U.S. Military Employs
Agent Orange, Operation
|1962 2-7 4,000 U.S. troops in SV
with addition of 2 Army aviation units
|1962 Sept. Silent Spring
|1962 9-30 James Meredith Enrolls at "Ole Miss"|
|1963 1-2 Battle of Ap Bac|
|1963 2-25 Betty Friedan's The
Feminine Mystique is published
|1963 4-16 Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Ala.; he writes his seminal "Letter from Birmingham Jail," arguing that individuals have the moral duty to disobey unjust laws.|
|1963 5-8 Riots in Hue when SV
gov't troops try to prevent celebration of Buddha's birthday
|1963 May the first coordinated Vietnam War protests occur in London and Australia|
|1963 May During civil rights protests in Birmingham, Ala., Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene "Bull" Connor uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators.|
|1963 6-11 President Kennedy proposes the Civil Rights Bill.|
|1963 6-11 Thích
Đức First of seven
Buddhist monks commits suicide
|1963 6-12 (Jackson, Miss.) Mississippi's NAACP field secretary, 37-year-old Medgar Evers, is murdered outside his home.|
|1963 7-26,28 Newport Folk Festival, includes popular folk singers Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs and Pete Seeger.|
|1963 8-28 About 200,000 people join the The March for Jobs and Freedom. Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial, participants listen as Martin Luther King delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.|
|1963 9-15 (Birmingham, Ala.) Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school are killed when a bomb explodes at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupt in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.|
|1963 11-2 Diem overthrown and
|1963 11-15 Following a
prediction by Defense Secretary MCNamara that the U.S. military role
will end by. 1965, the U.S. gov't announces that 1,00 of the 15,000
American advisers in South Vietnam will be withdrawth early in December.
|1963 11-22 President Kennedy's assassination
|1963 11-24 President Johnson escalates American's military involvement in the Vietnam War, declares he will not "lose Vietnam" during a meeting with Ambassador Lodge in Washington.|
|1963 11-29 The Beatles release "I Want to Hold Your Hand,"|
|1963 12-31 16,300 American military advisors in South Vietnam.|
|1964 1-8 President Johnson
declares a "War on Poverty" in the State of the Union address thus
initiating plans for his Great Society.
|1964 1-23 The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.|
|1964 2-3 In protests against
alleged de-facto school racial segregation, black and Puerto Rican
groups in New York City boycott public school.
|1964 3-8 Macolm X breaks with Nation of Islam announces he is forming a black nationalist party.|
|1964 4-19 Military coup in Laos.|
|1964 5-2 In the first major
student demonstration against the war hundreds of students march
through Times Square in New York City, while another 700 march in San
Francisco. Smaller numbers also protest in Boston; Seattle; and
|1964 Summer The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SNCC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom Summer.|
|1964 6-12 Nelson Mandela
sentenced to life in prison.
|1964 6-21 James E. Cheney, 21;
Andrew Goodman, 21; and Michael Schwerner, 24 go missing.
|1964 7-2 Civil
Rights Act of 1964
|1964 7-23 There is a Race riot
in Harlem, NY
|1964 7-30 On this night, South
Vietnamese commandos attack two small North Vietnamese islands in the
Gulf of Tonkin. The U.S. destroyer Maddox, an electronic spy ship, is
123 miles south with orders to electronically simulate an air attack to
draw North Vietnamese boats away from the commandos.
|1964 8-4 Gulf of Tonkin Incident
|1964 8-4 Three civil
rights workers ( Michael Schwerner,Andrew Goodman and James Chaney )
were found buried
|1964 8-24,27 Democratic Convention, Atlantic City Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party|
|1964 8-28 There are Race riots in Philadelphia|
|1964 9-14 Free Speech Movement
protests begin at Berkeley.
|1964 10-14 Announced that
Martin Luther King Jr. has won the the Nobel Peace Prize.
|1964 11-1 Two days before the
U.S. presidential election, Vietcong mortars shell Bien Hoa Air Base
near Saigon. Four Americans are killed, 76 wounded. Five B-57 bombers
are destroyed, and 15 are damaged.
|1964 12-20 Military coup - South
|1964 12-3 Police arrest 800
students at Berkeley for occupying the administration building.
|1965 1,1-2,7 Vietcong forces mount a series of attacks across South Vietnam. They briefly seize control of Binh Gia, a village only 40 miles from Saigon. Two hundred South Vietnamese troops are killed near Binh Gia, along with five American advisors.|
|1965 1-2 The Selma Voting Rights
Movement officially started on January 2, 1965, when Dr. King addressed
a mass meeting in Brown Chapel in defiance of the anti-meeting
|1965 1-18 Malcolm X denounces US involvement in Vietnam|
|1965 1-27 Khanh seizes full
control of South Vietnamese government
|1965 1-29 one of the first violent acts of protest was the Edmonton aircraft bombing, where planes being retrofitted in Canada were destroyed|
|1965 2-7 VC attack US base at
Pleiku - A U.S. helicopter base and advisory compound in the central
highlands of South Vietnam is attacked by NLF commandos. Nine Americans
are killed and more than 70 are wounded. President Johnson immediately
orders U.S. Navy fighter-bombers to attack military targets just inside
|1965 2-8 U.S. starts bombing North Vietnam.|
|1965 2-10 A Vietcong-placed bomb
explodes in a hotel in Qui Nonh, killing 23 American servicemen.
|1965 2-13 President Johnson authorizes Operation Rolling Thunder|
|1965 2-18 an Alabama State Trooper, corporal James Bonard Fowler, shot Jimmie Lee Jackson as he tried to protect his mother and grandfather in a café to which they had fled while being attacked by troopers during a nighttime civil rights demonstration in Marion,|
|1965 2-18 Sect. of Defense Robert McNamara calls for nationwide network of bomb shelters.|
|1965 2-18 Khanh ousted in a
military coup, he is replaced by a military/civilian government led by
Dr. Phan Huy Quat.
|1965 2-21 Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom|
|1965 2-25 Bombing of North
|1965 3-2 Operation Rolling
|1965 3-3 Owsley starts LSD
factory, making large quantities of acid available for the first time.
|1965 3-6 First American soldier officially sets foot on Vietnam battlefields, First U.S. combat troops begin fighting in South Vietnam.|
|1965 3-7 (Selma, Ala.) Blacks
begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped
at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are
hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them.
The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media.
|1965 3-7,8 3,500 The first U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam as 3500 Marines land at China Beach to defend the American air base at Da Nang.|
|1965 3-9 Johnson approves the use of napalm.|
|1965 3-13 Alice Herz, an
82-year-old survivor of Nazi terror, set herself on fire in Detroit
shortly after President Johnson announced major troop increases and the
bombing of North Vietnam.
|1965 3-16 Police break-up a
Civil Rights demonstration of 600 in Montgomery, Alabama
|1965 3-17 1,600 people
demonstrate at Montgomery, Alabama courthouse
|1965 3-21 Martin Luther King Jr. leads march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama joined by 25,000 marchers.|
|1965 3-24, the anti-war organization Students for a Democratic Society attended the first teach-in, organized by some teachers, against the war at the University of Michigan, attended by 2,500 participants. This was to be repeated at 35 campuses across the country.|
|1965 3-25 Civil rights worker shot and killed by KKK in Alabama|
|1965 3-28 Martin Luther King calls for boycott of Alabama on TV|
|1965 4-3 An American campaign
against North Vietnam's transport system begins. In a month-long
offensive, Navy and Air Force planes hit bridges, road and rail
junctions, truck parks and supply depots.
|1965 4-7 The U.S. offers North
Vietnam economic aid in exchange for peace, but the offer is summarily
rejected. Two weeks later, President Johnson raises America's combat
strength in Vietnam to more than 60,000 troops. Allied forces from
Korea and Australia are added as a sign of international support.
|1965 4-17 the SDS and SNCC led
the first of several anti-war marches in Washington DC, with about
|1965 4-28 United
Dominican Republic with 42,000 troops.
Occupation lasts to Sept. 1966, 1,500 civilians and 500 combatants
killed on Dominican side. General Robert York led, from Alabama [Bright
Shining Lie] and was active in Vietnam.
|1965 5-3 The first U.S. Army combat troops, 3500 men of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, arrive in Vietnam.|
|1965 5-9,10 Bob Dylan performs
at the Royal Albert Hall
|1965 5-11 2500 Vietcong troops attack Song Be, a South Vietnamese provincial capital. After two days of fierce battles in and around the town, the Vietcong withdraw.|
|1965 5-12 The California State
Senate's Byrne Committee releases report calling the Berkeley campus a
haven for communists.
|1965 5-22,23 1st draft card burnings at UCB at demo organized by the Vietnam Day Committee, where a coffin was marched to the local Draft board office, a teach-in was attended by 30,000, and president Lyndon Johnson was burned in effigy.|
|1965 May - First anti Vietnam war demonstration in London outside the U.S. embassy|
|1965 6-10 At Dong Xai, a South
Vietnamese Army district headquarters and American Special Forces camp
is overrun by a full Vietcong regiment. U.S. air attacks eventually
drive the Vietcong away.
|1965 6-18 Ky takes power in
South Vietnam as the new prime minister with Thieu functioning as
official chief of state.
|1965 6-18 General William
Westmoreland launches the first purely offensive operation by American
ground forces in Vietnam, sweeping into NLF territory just northwest of
|1965 July The Mississippi
Freedom Democratic Party circulates a leaflet entitled "The War on
Vietnam: A McComb, Mississippi, Protest."
|1965 7-8 Chicago school
|1965 7-14 US spacecraft Mariner
4 flies by Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to return images from
the red planet
|1965 7-25 Bob Dylan is booed at the Newport Folk Festival for playing electric set with Paul Butterfield Blues Band.|
|1965 7-28 President Johnson
announces he will send 44 combat battalions to Vietnam. Monthly draft
calls are doubled to 35,000.
|1965 7-30 LBJ signs Medicare bill|
|1965 8-6 Aniwar protestors
attempt to stop troop trains on the Santa Fe railroad tracks in West
Berkeley and Emeryville by standing on the tracks.
|1965 8-10 Voting Rights Act
|1965 8-11,17 Watts Rebellion
|1965 8-13 First issue of The
Berkeley Barb published
|1965 8-17 Operation Starlite. In
this, the first major battle of the Vietnam War, the United States
scores a resounding victory. Ground forces, artillery from Chu Lai,
ships and air support combine to kill nearly 700 Vietcong soldiers.
U.S. forces sustain 45 dead and more than 200 wounded.
|1965 8-31 President Johnson signs a law criminalizing draft card burning.|
|1965 9-5 San Francisco writer
Michael Fallon applies the term "hippie" to the San Francisco
counterculture in an article about the Blue Unicorn coffeehouse where
LEMAR (Legalize Marijuana) & the Sexual Freedom League meet, and
|1965 9-16 Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta found the United Farm Workers association, in Delano, Calif. Huerta becomes the first woman to lead such a union. Under their leadership, the UFW joins a strike started by Filipino grape pickers in Delano. The Grape Boycott becomes one of the most significant social justice movements for farm workers in the United States.|
|1965 9-24 President Johnson
issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the
|1965 10-3 Immigration Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, in actuality fundamentally reshaped American Immigration for the remainder of the twentieth century|
|1965 10-16 100,000 anti-war protesters nationwide in 80 cities. New York, police make the 1st arrest under a new Federal draft card-burning law.|
|1965 10-22 A demonstration
against the war in Sydney, Australian results in 65 arrests.
|1965 Nov. Anti-war
demonstrations are widespread in the U.S.
|1965 11-2 Quaker Norman
Morrison set himself on fire and died outside Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara’s Pentagon office, a scene McNamara witnessed
|1965 11- 9 Catholic Worker
Roger LaPorte immolated himself opposite the United Nations building as
an anti-war protest
|1965 11-14,18 Heavy
Fighting at Ia
|1965 11-17 Elements of the 66th
North Vietnamese Regiment moving east toward Plei Mei encounter and
ambush an American battalion. Neither reinforcements nor effective
firepower can be brought in. When fighting ends that night, 60 percent
of the Americans were casualties, and almost one of every three
soldiers in the battalion had been killed.
|1965 11-27 some 40,000 protesters led by several student activist groups surrounded the White House, calling for an end to the war, then marched to the Washington Monument. On that same day, President Johnson announced a significant escalation of US involvement in Indochina, from 120,000 to 400,000 troops.|
|1965 The Autobiography of
Malcolm X and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man are published.
|1965 12-10 The Warlocks change their name to The Grateful Dead|
12-31 181,00 U.S. Troops
|1966 1-2 Strike of public
transportation workers in New York City
|1966 1-8 U.S. forces launch
Operation Crimp. Deploying nearly 8,000 troops, it is the largest
American operation of the war. The goal of the campaign is to capture
the Vietcong's headquarters for the Saigon area, which is believed to
be located in the district of Chu Chi. Though the area in Chu Chi is
razed and repeatedly patrolled, American forces fail to locate any
significant Vietcong base.
|1966 1-14 March on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond|
|1966 1-28 US military adopts the
tactic of Search and Destroy as the standard operating procedure in
|1966 Feb. Master Sgt. Donald
Duncan publishes "The Whole Thing was a Lie" a stinging rebuke of US
involvement in Vietnam in Ramparts.
|1966 Feb. The Senate Foreign
Relations Committee, chaired by Sen. J. William Fulbright, holds
televised hearings examining America's policy in Vietnam.
|1966 Feb. U.S. forces launch
four search and destroy missions in the month of February. Although
there are two minor clashes with Vietcong regiments, there are no major
|1966 2-5 The White House rebuffs
a group of veterans who attempted to return their medals and honorable
discharge papers as a protest against the Vietnam war.
|1966 2-16. Veterans Stage Anti-War Rally a group of about 100 veterans attempted to return their decorations to the White House in protest of the war, but were turned back.|
| 1966 2-19 Jefferson
Airplane and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin
perform at the Fillmore
|1966 3-3 GI Bill grants veterans rights to education, housing, health and jobs|
|1966 3-5 The 272nd Regiment of
the Vietcong 9th Division attack a battalion of the American 3rd
Brigade at Lo Ke. U.S. air support succeeds in bombing the attackers
into retreat. Two days later, the American 1st Brigade and a battalion
of the 173rd Airborne are attacked by a Vietcong regiment, which is
driven away by artillery fire.
|1966 3-17 Cesar Chavez embarked
on a peregrinación, Spanish for pilgrimage, which was a three
hundred mile march from Delano California to the state’s capital of
|1966 3-26 Anti-Vietnam war
protests in NY bring out 25,000 on 5th Ave. Other protests in 7 US
cities and 7 foreign cities. Second International
Day of Protest Against the Vietnam War.
|1966 4-10 SDS National Council
decides to distribute a "National Vietnam Exam" to all students taking
the first Selective Service deferment test on May 14.
|1966 4-12 B-52's strike NV for first time near Mu Gia Pass|
|1966 4-12 NY Stock Exchange hit
with anti-war leaflets
|1966 4-30 30 Mississippi blacks
build tent city under President Johnson's window to protest housing
conditions in their state
|1966 5-14 South Vietnam in a
state of virtual civil war as military units loyal to Prime Minister Ky
battle renegade South Vietnamese Buddhist troops in DaNang and Hue.
|1966 5-15 another large
demonstration, with 10,000 picketers calling for an end to the war,
took place outside the White House and the Washington Monument.
|1966 Late May - June, In
late May 1966, the North Vietnamese 324B Division crosses the
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and encounters a Marine battalion. The NVA
holds their ground and the largest battle of the war to date breaks out
near Dong Ha. Most of the 3rd Marine Division, some 5,000 men in five
battalions, heads north. In Operation Hastings, the Marines backed by
South Vietnamese Army troops, the heavy guns of U.S. warships and their
artillery and air power drive the NVA back over the DMZ in three weeks.
|1966 6-6 James Meredith is shot
while trying to march across Mississippi
|1966 6-19 U.S. Senate Internal
Security Subcommittee charges that communists have played a key role in
anti-war demonstrations .
|1966 6-23 RVN sieze Buddhist HQ
in Siagon, bring an end a wave of protests than had begun in March with
agitation against military rule.
|1966 C.O.R.E. Cites "Burden On
Minorities and Poor" in Vietnam
|1966 6-28,30 National
Organization of Women
|1966 6-29 US bomb oil depots around Hanoi and Haiphong.|
|1966 6-30 On Route 13, which
links Vietnam to the Cambodian border, American forces are brutally
assaulted by the Vietcong. Only American air and artillery support
prevents a complete disaster.
|1966 6-30 Fort Hood Three refuse to go to Vietnam Pfc James Johnson, Pvt Dennis Mora and Pvt David Samas|
|1966 July Heavy fighting near
Con Thien kills nearly 1,300 North Vietnamese troops.
|1966 7-4 The Congress of Racial
Equality calls for withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam and an end to
|1966 7-18 Race Riot - Cleveland|
|1966 8-7 Race Riot -
|1966 8-18 Quotations of Chairman
Mao also called the the little red book is published in China. The Red
Guard begins to wipe out western influence in China as part of the
cultural revolution that is raging there.
|1966 8-18 The Battle of Long Tan
involing Austrlian forces
|1966 9-7,9 Fort Hood 3 court
martialed and found guilty of violating Article 134 of the UCMJ.
Johnson and Mora sentenced to three years at Hard Labor, Johnson to
|1966 9-14 In a new mission
code-named Operation Attleboro, the U.S. 196th Brigade and 22,000 South
Vietnamese troops begin aggressive search and destroy sweeps through
Tay Ninh Province.
|1966 Oct. The Vietcong's 9th
Division, having recovered from battles from the previous July,
prepares for a new offensive. Losses in men and equipment have been
replaced by supplies and reinforcements sent down the Ho Chi Minh trail
from North Vietnam.
|1966 10-15 Bobby Seale and Huey
P. Newton form Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland
|1966 11-5 The Walk for Love and
Peace and Freedom in New York City takes place with 10,000
12-31 385,000 U.S. Troops
|1967 Jan - May Two North
Vietnamese divisions, operating out of the DMZ that separates North and
South Vietnam, launch heavy bombardments of American bases south of the
DMZ. These bases include Khe Sanh, the Rockpile, Cam Lo, Dong Ha, Con
Thien and Gio Linh.
|1967 1-8 America forces begin
Operation Cedar Falls, which is intended to drive Vietcong forces from
the Iron Triangle, a 60 square mile area lying between the Saigon River
and Route 13. Nearly 16,000 American troops and 14,000 soldiers of the
South Vietnamese Army move into the Iron Triangle, but they encounter
no major resistance. Huge quantities of enemy supplies are captured.
Over 19 days, 72 Americans are killed, victims mostly of snipers
emerging from concealed tunnels and booby traps. Seven hundred and
twenty Vietcong are killed.
|1967 1-14 20,000-30,000 people
staged a "Human Be-In" anti-war event in Golden Gate Park in San
|1967 2-8 Christian groups opposed to the war staged a nationwide "Fast for Peace".|
|1967 2-late Dow Recruiters
Driven From Wisconsin Campus
|1967 2-21 In one of the largest
air-mobile assaults ever, 240 helicopters sweep over Tay Ninh province,
beginning Operation Junction City. The goal of Junction City is to
destroy Vietcong bases and the Vietcong military headquarters for South
Vietnam, all of which are located in War Zone C, north of Saigon. Some
30,000 U.S. troops take part in the mission, joined by 5,000 men of the
South Vietnamese Army. After 72 days, Junction City ends.
|1967 3-1 Adam Clayton Powell
denied House seat
|1967 3-12 A three page
anti-war ad appeared in The New York Times bearing the signatures of
6,766 teachers and professors.
|1967 3-17 A group of antiwar
citizens marched to the Pentagon to protest American involvement in
|1967 3-25 Civil rights leader
Martin Luther King led a march of 5,000 against the war in Chicago,
|1967 3-26 Be-In at Central Park
in NY. which 10,000 attend
|1967 4-4 M.
speech against the war.
|1967 4-8,10 Black Rebellion in
|1967 4-10Vietnam Week starts.
Draft card burnings and anti-draft demonstrations
|1967 4-15 400,000 people marched
from Central Park to the UN building in New York City to protest the
war, where they were addressed by critics of the war such as Benjamin
Spock, Martin Luther King, and Jan Barry Crumb, a veteran of the
conflict. On the same date 100,000 marched in San Francisco.
|1967 4-16 Black Rebellion in
|1967 4-19 Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Seattle.|
|1967 4-24 American attacks on
North Vietnam's airfields begin.
|1967 4-24 Abbie Hoffman led a
small group of protesters against both the war and capitalism who
interrupted the New York Stock Exchange, causing chaos by throwing
fistfuls of both real and fake dollars down from the gallery.
|1967 4-28 Muhammad
Ali refuses induction, had announced that he would refuse to serve
early in 1966 [video]
|1967 May Desperate air battles
rage in the skies over Hanoi and Haiphong. America air forces shoot
down 26 North Vietnamese jets, decreasing the North's pilot strength by
|1967 5-2 British philosopher
Bertrand Russell presided over the "Russell Tribunal" in Stockholm, a
mock war crimes tribunal
|1967 5-18,26 US forces enter the
Demilitarized Zone for the first time.
|1967 5-20 Flower Power Day in NYC
|1967 5-27 Army admits more than 700 GIs have deserted because of their opposition to the Vietnam war|
|1967 Late May In the Central
Highlands of South Vietnam, Americans intercept North Vietnamese Army
units moving in from Cambodia. Nine days of continuous battles leave
hundreds of North Vietnamese soldiers dead.
|1967 6-1 VVAW is born
|1967 6-12 In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Sixteen states that still banned interracial marriage at the time are forced to revise their laws.|
|1967 6-16 Monterey Pop
|1967 6-21 Summer Solstice Party
in Golden Gate Park
|1967 6-30 The number of US
troops in Vietnam reaches 448,400.
|1967 July "Summer of Love" in
|1967 7-2 Congress passes
Selective Service Act reform: ends grad student deferments & puts
them in a pool to be drafted in June 68
|1967 7-12,16 Black rebellion in
|1967 7-23,30 Black
The Detroit Riot of 1967 began when police vice squad officers executed a raid in the early morning hours of July 23, 1967 on an after hours drinking club or "blind pig" in a predominantly black neighborhoods located at Twelfth Street and Clairmount Avenue. They were expecting to round up a few patrons, but instead found 82 people inside holding a party for two returning Vietnam veterans.
Urban racial violence did plague over 100 cities in 1967. During the Spring, minor disturbances had occurred in Omaha, Louisville, Cleveland, Chicago, San Francisco, Wichita, Nashville, and Houston. Then in June, Boston and Tampa experienced serious disorders. The most devastating riot since Watts in 1965 occurred, however, in Newark, from June 12 to 17, 1967, an outburst that resulted in 25 deaths, 1,200 persons injured, and over 1,300 arrested. The following month Detroit was the site of the worst urban race riot of the decade, one that left 43 dead, over 2,000 injured and more than 3,800 arrested. Rioting continued around the country, with outbreaks in Phoenix, Washington, D.C. and New Haven, among other cities. According to a report of the Senate Permanent Committee on Investigations released in November 1967, 75 major riots occurred in that year, compared with 21 in 1966; 83 were killed in 1967, compared with 11 in 1966 and 36 in 1965.
|1967 7-20,23 Black Power
Conference - Newark
|1967 7-26 H. Rap Brown arrested
for inciting a riot in Maryland.
|1967 7-27 Camp Pendleton, California--In the middle of the Detroit rebellion, two Black Marines requested a "captain's mast" meeting with their officers. They demanded to know why "Black men should fight a white man's war" in Vietnam. The brass came down hard. The soldiers were convicted of making "disloyal statements" and "advising, urging, and attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, and refusal of duty." One was sentenced to ten years, the other to six.|
|1967 summer Neil Armstrong and
various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise
awareness for space travel. According to First Man, a biography of
Armstrong's life, during the tour, several college students protested
the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of
Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.
|1967 8-28 US representative Tim
Lee Carter R-KY stated before congress: "Let us now, while we are yet
strong, bring our men home, every man jack of them. The Vietcong fight
fiercely and tenaciously because it is their land and we are foreigners
intervening in their civil war. If we must fight, let us fight in
defense of our homeland and our own hemisphere."
|1967 10-8 Ernesto "Che"
Guevara was put to death by Bolivian soldiers, trained, equipped
and guided by U.S. Green Beret and CIA operatives.
|1967 10-20 Stop the Draft Week
resulted in major clashes at the Oakland, California induction center,
and saw more than a thousand registrants return their draft cards in
events across the country. The cards were delivered to the Justice
Department on October 20.
|1967 10-21 March on Pentagon a large demonstration took place at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. As many as 100,000 demonstrators attended the event, and at least 30,000 later marched to the Pentagon for another rally and an all night vigil. Some, including Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, attempted to "exorcise" and "levitate" the building, while others engaged in civil disobedience on the steps of the Pentagon, interrupted by clashes with soldiers and police. In all, 647 arrests were made. When a plot to airdrop 10,000 flowers on the Pentagon was foiled by undercover agents, these flowers ended up being placed in the barrels of MP's rifles, as seen in some famous photographs. Norman Mailer documented the events surrounding the march on the Pentagon in his novel, Armies of the Night.|
|1967 Oct. Congressman Thomas P. ("Tip") O'Neill broke publicly with President Johnson and opposed continuation of the Vietnam war. O'Neill supported Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-Minn) for president in 1968|
|1967 11-7 General Hershey
announces crackdown on deferred college students active in anti-war
|1967 11-29 Robert McNamara
announces his resignation as Defense Secretary.
|1967 11-30 Eugene McCarthy
announces he is a candidate for President
|1967 Dec. "Stop the Draft"
movement organized by 40 antiwar groups, nationwide protests ensue.
|1967 12-5 1000 antiwar
protesters try to close NYC induction center. 585 arrested including
Allen Ginsberg and Dr. Benjamin Spock.
12-31 486,000 U.S. troops
|1968 Jan UFO Coffeehouse opens
in Columbia, South Carolina
|1968 1-18 Youth International
Party (YIPPIE) founded. Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick
Gregory, & friends pronounce themselves "Yippies"
|1968 1-21,4-8 Seige of Khe Sanh.
At 5:30 a.m., a shattering barrage of shells, mortars and rockets slam
into the Marine base at Khe Sanh. Eighteen Marines are killed
instantly, 40 are wounded. The initial attack continues for two days.
|1968 Latino high school students
in Los Angeles stage citywide walkouts protesting unequal treatment by
the school district. Prior to the walkouts, Latino students were
routinely punished for speaking Spanish on school property, not allowed
to use the bathroom during lunch, and actively discouraged from going
to college. Walkout participants are subjected to police brutality and
public ridicule; 13 are arrested on charges of disorderly conduct and
|1968 1-30,3-15 Tet
Offensive: On the Tet holiday, Vietcong units surge into action over
the length and breadth of South Vietnam. In more than 100 cities and
towns, shock attacks by Vietcong sapper-commandos are followed by wave
after wave of supporting troops.
|1968 2-1 General Loan publicly
executes an NVA prisoner in front of an NBC news crew and an A. P.
|1968 2-8 3 Black Students killed
by police - Orangeburg, South Carolina
|1968 2-8 George Wallace mounts a
third-party campaign for President on a law and order platform
|1968 2-14 80+ students sitin
against Dow Chemical at Wish. U. 4 are charge by university including
|1968 2-23 Over 1,300 artillery
rounds hit the Marine base at Khe Sanh and its outposts, more than on
any previous day of attacks.
|1968 2-27 Walter Cronkite
declares, on the evening news, that he cannot see the Vietnam war
ending as anything but a stalemate.
|Battle for Hue|
|1968 3-6 While Marines wait for
a massive assault, NVA forces retreat into the jungle around Khe Sanh.
For the next three weeks, things are relatively quiet around the base.
|1968 3-11 Massive search and
destroy sweeps are launched against Vietcong remnants around Saigon and
other parts of South Vietnam.
|1968 3-12 anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy received more votes than expected in the New Hampshire Primary, wins 42% of the vote|
|1968 3-16 Massacre of 200 - 500
Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.
|1968 3-16 Robert F. Kennedy
announces candidacy for President.
|1968 3-17 Major rally outside
the US Embassy in London's Grosvenor Square turned to a riot with 86
people injured and over 200 arrested. Over 10,000 had rallied
peacefully in Trafalgar Square but met a police barricade outside the
|1968 3-22 Without warning, a
massive North Vietnamese barrage slams into Khe Sanh. More than 1,000
rounds hit the base, at a rate of a hundred every hour. At the same
time, electronic sensors around Khe Sanh indicate NVA troop movements.
American forces reply with heavy bombing.
|1968 3-31 LBJ Announces He Won't Run|
|1968 4-4 MLK Slain in Memphis|
|1968 4-6 Oakland Police ambush
Black Panthers. Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver arrested with a
bullet-shattered leg, while Bobby Hutton is shot and killed.
|1968 4-8 U.S. forces in
Operation Pegasus finally retake Route 9, ending the siege of Khe Sanh.
A 77 day battle, Khe Sanh had been the biggest single battle of the
Vietnam War to that point.
|1968 4-4,11 Black uprisings in
|1968 4-14 Love-in at Malibu
|1968 4-15 Spring Mobilization
Against the war
|1968 4-17 national media films
the anti-war riot that breaks out in Berkeley, California. The
over-reaction by the police in Berkeley is shown in Berlin and Paris,
sparking reactions in those cities.
|1968 4-23,30 SDS lead students
take over 5 buildings at Colombia Univeristy for a week. 700 arrested
|19684-24 300 Black students
occupy administration building at Boston University demanding black
studies and financial aid.
|1968 5-4 6 American deserters
hold press conference in Moscow to denounce the War.
|1968 5-4,5 Wave of attacks by VC
(NVA) hit 109 cities
|1968 5-10 Paris Peace Talks Begin|
|1968 5-13,30 France swept by
protests, strikes and demonstrations.
|1968 5-25 First campus protest
against ROTC is held at Michigan State University in East Lansing by
pacifists during ROTC Field Days.
|1968 May The
Movement (DRUM) was created in May 1968
at the Chrysler Plant in Hamtramck. This organization sought to put
Blacks in higher positions and make physicians available on sight.
|1968 June Oleo Strut Coffeehouse
|1968 June Khe Sanh closes
|1968 6-5 Robert Kennedy Assassinated|
|1968 7-1 Phoenix Program
|1968 7-8 DRUM led a wildcat strike against conditions in the Hamtramck plant.|
|1968 7-15,18 The 9 for Peace
publicly announce they had resigned from the US military and begin a 48
hour service of liberation and communion.
|1968 7-28 South Vietnamese
opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu sentenced to five years hard labor
for advocating the formation of a coalition government.
|1968 8-8 Richard Nixon and Spiro
Agnew nominated during Miami riots.
|1968 8-23 At Fort Hood a hundred Black soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division gathered to discuss the situation. 43 GIs then publicly announced that if called they would refuse to go to Chicago for riot duty during the Democratic National Convention. Over half of the Fort Hood 43 were Vietnam combat veterans. They were arrested--and faced possible execution for mutiny. Given the explosive atmosphere in the military and throughout society, the brass decided to hush up the mutiny instead and the soldiers received light sentences and transfers.|
|1968 8-23 Gypsy Peterson, editor
of the Fatigue Press, and Josh Gould, manager of the Oleo Strut are
busted as they left Killeen to go the the Democratic Convention.
|1968 8-26,29 Upheaval at Democratic Convention in Chicago|
|1968 8-29,30 Long Binh Jail
|1968 10-2 Mexican military fire
upon protesting students, killing 200.
|1968 10-4 Shelter Half GI coffeehouse opens in Tacoma.|
|1968 10-10 Lt [jg] Susan Schnall
'bombs' US Naval installations in and around San Francisco with 20,000
leaflets announcing GI & Vets March for Peace in San Francisco.
|1968 10-11 Pvt Richard Bunch,
19, was shot in the back and killed trying to escape from the Presidio
|1968 10-12 GI & Vets March
for Peace - San Francisco
|1968 10-14 In protest of the
killing of Richard Bunch, 27 prisoners at the Presidio staged a brief
sit-down strike during Morning Roll Call demanding to see the
Correction Officer to present a list of grievances.
|1968 10-16 Tommie Smith and John
Carlos raise fists for Black Power at Summer Olymics
|1968 10-29 Counterpoint, the newspaper of the GI-Civilian Alliance for Peace at Ft. Lewis, first appears.|
|1968 10-31 LBJ annouces end of
bombing of NV. Operation Rolling Thunder comes to an end. In total, the
campaign had cost more than 900 American aircraft. Eight hundred and
eighteen pilots are dead or missing, and hundreds are in captivity.
|1968 11-5 Shirley Chisholm was
elected America's first black woman to Congress
|1968 11-6 San Francisco State
University - student strike.
|1968 12-2 Student strike - New
York High Schools.
|1968 12-31 536,100 U.S. troops
|1969 1-17 Los Angeles Panther Captain Bunchy Carter and Deputy Minister John Huggins were killed in Campbell Hall on the UCLA campus, in a gun battle with members of US Organization|
|1969 1-19 GIs at Ft. Sam Houston
publish a pro-Panther pamphlet, calling for "Black Power".
|1969 1-22 Strike at U.C. Berkeley for ethnic studies|
|1969 Feb. Student strikes and
sit-ins - Berkeley, Harvard, Howard University, Penn State, Rice,
University of Massachussetts, University of Wisconsin, University of
|1969 2-3 Harvard University
faculty votes to deny credit for ROTC courses and to deny ROTC officers
recognition as members of the faculty. —Yale in New Haven, Conn.,
|1969 2-4 Yasser Arafat appointed
chairmaan of the Palestinian Liberation Organization
|1969 2-5 Reagan declares a
"State of Extreme Emergeny" in California.
|1969 2-13 33 students arrested
at administration building sit-in at University of Massachusetts
|1969 2-16 Antiwar protest in downtown Seattle, part of a national plan for Easter protests, led by 200 GIs. Speakers include Andy Stapp of the ASU, historian Sidney Lens, and Howard Petrick from the SMC.|
|1969 2-18 Students seize
building and boycott started at Howard University.
|1969 2-23,24 VC rocket attacks against 115 bases. In a major offensive, assault teams and artillery attack American bases all over South Vietnam, killing 1,140 Americans. At the same time, South Vietnamese towns and cities are also hit. The heaviest fighting is around Saigon, but fights rage all over South Vietnam.|
|1969 2-24 Students occupy
Adminstartion building at Penn State.
|1969 2-27 Police charge student
picket lines, club and arrest two Chicano leaders at U.C. Berkeley.
|1969 2-27 Thousands rampage thru
nine buildings at U of Wisconsin, Madison over black enrollments.
|1969 3-5 Senate Committee
reports that in the year ending June 30 1968 “a GI deserted on average
once every ten minutes” and a GI went AWOL approximately every 3
|1969 3-13 Senior US military
commanders order investigations into reports that the Black Panther
Party might be organizing and recruiting among the troops in Vietnam.
|1969 3-15 Presidio 27
demonstration in San Francisco, speakers include Susan Schnall and
|1969 3-18 "Operation Menu,” the
secret bombing Cambodia, begins.
|1969 Late Feb. 1,000 students
protest ROTC at the State University of New York in Buffalo
|1969 3-28 Founders of The
Shelter Half Coffeehouse arrested for "contributing to the delinquecy
of a minor."
|1969 April Armed Services
Committee discloses that 53,357 servicemen have been classified as
|1969 4-4 “Pain the Brass Night,”
where civilians leaflet at Ft. Lewis about the upcoming weekend of
|1969 4-5,6 The only major
anti-war demonstration in the early months of the Nixon presidency
occurred April 5th and 6th
April 5-6: “Antiwar Basic Training Days” conference at the Moore Theater in downtown Seattle, sponsored by GI-CAP. Speakers include Aaron Dixon from the Black Panther Party, Native American activist Sidney Mills, Ann Fetter from the ACLU, and Bill Massy from the Young Socialist Alliance.
April 5: Large GI-civilian Easter demonstrations in New York City (100,000); San Francisco (40,000); Chicago (30,000).
|1969 4-9 SDS torches a Marine
Corps classroom at Harvard. Demanding an end to ROTC, 40 SDS members
take over the religion lounge at nearby Northeastern University
|1969 4-9,22 Student strike -
Harvard. 300 Harvard students led by SDS seize Univ Hall and evict
eight deans April 10 - Police called into Harvard, 37 injured, 200
arrested April 11 - Start of 3 day student strike at Harvard April 22 -
Harvard faculty votes to create black studies program & give
students vote in selection of its faculty.
|1969 4-15 Thousands of students
march on the University of California—Berkeley’s ROTC building,
sparking a five-hour battle with police.
|1969 4-22 City College of NY
closed after black & Puerto Rican students lock selves inside
asking higher minority enrollment
|1969 4-24 U.S. B-52s launch the
biggest attack yet on North Vietnam. As a result there are protests
ensuing around the country.
|1969 4-30 US troop levels in South Vietnam peak at 543,000|
|1969 5-4 GI-CAP’s clambake
fundraiser at Point Defiance in Tacoma
|1969 5-4 Hal Muskat transferred
from Fort Dix, to Fort Lee, for involvement in the distribution of
underground newspapers on post.
|1969 5-6 SDS sets fire to the
ground floor of the ROTC building at Harvard. Stanford University ROTC
building also burned by students.
|1969 5-10,20 Hamburger Hill
|1969 5-14,15 People's Park -
Berkeley,May 15 - Hippies in People's Park in Berkeley attacked by
police and National Guard.
|1969 5-17 GI-CAP celebrates
Armed Forces Day by handing out antiwar leaflets at Seattle Center.
|1969 May GIs serving with the
101st Airborne, in Vietnam, publish Statement in Support of the
|1969 May The New York Times
breaks the story about the secret bombing of Cambodia. In response
Nixon orders illegal wiretapping of journalists.
|1969 6-6,8 PRG formed in South
|1969 6-7 Fred Hampton and Black Panthers announce "Rainbow Coalition" Groups involved included Black Panther Party, Brown Berets, I Wor Kuen and their successors the Red Guard Party, White Panther Party, Gray Panthers, Youth International Party, The Patriot Party, Young Patriots Organization, American Indian Movement, Students for a Democratic Society, Gay Liberation Front, Symbionese Liberation Army, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Weather Underground and Young Lords|
|1969 6-8 Nixon annouces
Vietnamization. President Nixon meets with South Vietnamese President
Nguyen Van Thieu on Midway Island in the Pacific, and announces that
25,000 U.S. troops will be withdrawn immediately.
|1969 Summer Black GIs from Fort
Lewis’ Third Cavalry Division walk out of riot control classes en
masse, receiving no punishment because of commanders’ fears of creating
a potentially explosive incident.
|1969 June The GI Press Service
is formed by the Student Mobilization Committee as an “associated
press” of the GI underground newspapers, serving as a national
disseminator of articles and publishing national roundup issues.
|1969 6-10 GI-CAP, the Young
Socialist Alliance, and the Seattle Antiwar Action Movement demonstrate
during a “welcome home” parade for troops returning from Vietnam, with
signs that read “Welcome home—We’ll stay in the streets until all of
the GIs are home.”
|1969 6-18,22 SDS National
Conference in Chicago ends in chaos as the organization splits into two
ideologially incompatable factions.
|1969 6-20 Roger Priest charged
with violating 14 specifications under 4 articles of the Uniform Code
of Military Justice, for statements and articles published in the first
3 issues of OM.
|1969 6-28 Stonewall Riots
- New York
|1969 7-10 800 GIs parade in Seattle for returning soldiers.|
|1969 7-13 GI-CAP’s aquatic invasion of Ft Lewis, across American Lake, to “liberate” GIs.|
|1969 7-20 Apollo 11 landed on the moon|
|1969 8-15,16,17 The Woodstock
|1969 8-20 Bobby Seale arrested
in Oakland for murder of Alex Rachey, charges were later dropped
|1969 8-24 Combat
Refusal - Company A of the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry.
|1969 8-30 Fort Knox Coffeehouse
|1969 9-3 Ho Chi Minh dies
|1969 9-11 Richard Chase refuses
to participate in riot control training - Fort Hood.
|1969 9-23 Puerto Rican youth in Chicago form the Young Lords Organization|
|1969 9-24 Chicago Seven
|1969 10-6 Weathermen blow up
police statue in Haymarket Square - Chicago.
|1969 10-8,11Days of Rage -
|1969 10-15 "First Vietnam
Moratorium" - An estimated 1 million Americans across the US
participated in anti-war demonstrations, protest rallies and peace
vigils. 50 members of the US Congress also participated
|1969 10-15 100 SDS members
ransack the Air Force ROTC office at Buffalo, burning its files and
books. At Kent State University in Ohio, SDS members run alongside
cadets, screaming, “Kill, Kill, Kill!” Harvard’s student newspaper,
Crimson, comes out in favor of a Viet Cong victory.
|1969 10-20 Antiwar meeting at
Cascadian Service Club, on base at Fort Lewis, raided.
|1969 10-30 The Supreme Court
orders desegregation nationwide
|1969 11-3 President Nixon says
he plans withdrawal of all US troops on a secret timetable
|1969 11-12 Pfc Leonard Wathen, a GI at Fort Lewis and member of the ASU, refuses an order to serve on a riot control force, leading to a court-martial and sentence, on January 12, 1971, to six months in the stockade.|
|1969 11-13 Reports of the My Lai massacre (which took place on March 16, 1968) surface.|
|1969 11-15 2nd Moratorium - More than 250,000 protest the War in Washington DC|
|1969 11-20 Armed Forces
Disciplinary Control Board decides to put the Shelter Half coffeehouse
in Tacoma on trial.
|1969 Nov. Sam
Jane Alpert, and several others bombed several corporate offices and
military installations (including the Whitehall Army Induction Center)
in and around New York City in opposition to the war in Vietnam.
Melville was a leader in Attica and was killed.
|1969 12-1 The first draft
lottery in 27 years was held at Selective Service Headquarters in
|1969 12-4 Fred Hampton murdered
|1969 12-8 Police raid on L.A.
Black Panthers resulting in a four hour shoot-out.
|1969 12-11 The Shelter Half
receives letter from the Army threatening to declare them “off limits”
|1969 12-18 ASU members questioned by military police for passing out Fed Up at SeaTac Airport.|
|1969 12-20 Pvt Richard Chase
convicted and sentenced to two years hard labor at Leavenworth and
|1969 12-27,30 Weatherman
National War Council - Flint Michigan
|1969 12-31 474,000
|1970 January "Washington
Monthly Magazine" described an intelligence network of "nearly 1,000
plain clothes investigators working out of some 200 offices from coast
to coast" who wrote reports on "political protests of all kinds". The
domestic intelligence operation stored and disseminated information on
both groups and individuals who "might cause trouble of the US Army."
Senator Ervin reported in December 1970 that he was informed the
surveillance included 800 Illinois citizens including Senator Adlai
Stevenson, III (D-ILL), Rep. Abner Mikua (D-ILL) and US Circuit Judge
Otto Kerner. Ervin said "apparently anyone who in the Army's definition
was 'left of center' was a prospective candidate for political
surveillance." During lengthly Senate hearings on the Army's
activities, Defense Secretary Laird ordered the spying stopped.
|1970 Early The national Movement for a Democratic Military forms, and gains much early support from Navy sailors.|
|1970 1-2 Supreme Court rules
General Lewis Hershey's 1967 directive, that local draft boards
reclassify anti-draft demonstrators as eligible for active duty (1-A)
|1970 1-5 Supreme Court upholds
prohibition of underground GI anti-war newspaper at Fort Bragg.
|1970 1-21 The Shelter Half, ASU,
SDS, and other antiwar activists hold a “Trial
of the Army” at the University of Washington’s HUB ballroom to put the
Army, not the Shelter Half, on trial for genocide. Cancelled the next
|1970 Feb. Hew-Kekaw-Na-Yo (meaning “to resist,” later renamed Hey-Tra-Sneyo) all-Native American radical GI organization formed at Fort Lewis, with a short-lived newspaper Yah-Hoh.|
|1970 2-4 Riot in Isla Vista, Calif. protesting Chicago verdicts|
|1970 2-18,19 Chicago Seven
acquitted of conspiracy charges, Dellinger, Davis, Hayden, Hoffman,
& Rubin found guilty of crossing state lines to incite riot
|1970 2-19 Explosions in 3 office
buildings in NY; and in Calif; Wash; Maryland; Mich, possibly done by
|1970 2-22 ROTC building at
Washington University is burned
|1970 2-25 Isla Vista, Santa
Barbara Bank of America bombed
|1970 2-26 1,000 students attack
ROTC offices on the Buffalo campus.
|1970 2-26 U.S. Army discontinues
surveillance of civilian demonstrations
|1970 2-27 West Point graduate,
1st Lt. Louis Font, asks to be released from military service because
its actions in Vietnam counter his religious beliefs.
|1970 2-28 GI demonstration at
Fort Lewis to protest the military’s “kidnapping” of Bruce McLean, a
soldier and ASU member taken from his cell in the stockade and shipped
to Vietnam with little notice.
|1970 3-6 Three Weathermen blow
themselves up in Greenwich Village.
|1970 3-8 Actress and antiwar figure Jane Fonda visits Fort Lewis and is detained for “questioning” by military authorities. Later in the evening Fonda visits the Shelter Half coffeehouse, and holds a press conference in Seattle the following day.|
|1970 3-9 ASU chapter at Fort Lewis breaks from the national organization and reorganizes as the Independent Servicemen’s Movement, continuing to publish Fed Up and hoping to work with the national Movement for a Democratic Military.|
|1970 3-12 Students ignite a
bonfire in front of the ROTC building at Buffalo. Chanting “Ho, Ho, Ho
Chi Minh—NLF is Gonna Win!” they burn a U.S. flag.
|1970 3-14 Hey-Tra-Sneyo,
ISM GIs, civilians, and Northwest and Alcatraz Indians picket at the
Madigan gate of Fort Lewis as an extension of the occupation of Fort
Lawton, laying claim to the soon-to-be-abandoned army base for Native
|1970 3-18 Cambodian coup, Prince Sihanouk deposed|
|1970 3-22 San Diego MDM open
house, attended by Jane Fonda and Robert Ryan of the Black Panther
|1970 3-23 President Nixon orders
24,000 troops from Ft Dix and McGuire Air Force Base to New York City
to break postal workers strike.
|1970 March/April SDS firebombs
the ROTC building at the University of Colorado—Boulder.
|1970 April Ohio State University
at Columbus is wracked by violent confrontations over ROTC.
|1970 4-7 Referring to student
unrest, Ronald Reagan, Gov. of Calif: "If it takes a bloodbath, let's
get it over with."
|1970 4-15 National Moratorium
Day protests around the country; in Seattle, soldiers at Fort Lewis in
the ASU organize a mess hall strike.
|1970 4-18 Large antiwar demonstration in Seattle, drawing around 6,000 people.|
|1970 4-22 1st Earth Day
|1970 4-28 Three staff members of
the UFO Coffeehouse sentenced to six years in prison.
|1970 4-30 Students firebomb ROTC
buildings at Maryland, Michigan State, Washington, Wisconsin and Yale
|1970 4-30 Nixon orders US troops
into Cambodia. South Vietnamese troops attack into Cambodia, pushing
toward Vietcong bases. Two days later, a U.S. force of 30,000 --
including three U.S. divisions -- mount a second attack. Operations in
Cambodia last for 60 days.
|1970 5-2 Anti-war demonstrations
breakout at many U.S. campuses, 1,000 students set fire to the ROTC
building at Kent State. Torching it a second time that night, it is
destroyed. During the first week of May alone, ROTC buildings explode
or ignite at the rate of more than four a day.
|1970 5-5 4 Kent State college students were shot to death by Ohio National Guardsmen during an anti-war protest on the campus. This lead to widening anti-war protests|
|1970 5-5 Air Force ROTC building
at Washington University was burned
|1970 5-6 Students firebomb ROTC
offices on the Buffalo campus.
|1970 May Iowa State University
(ISU) in Ames, Iowa, was one of over thirteen hundred colleges and
universities that held protests during May 1970
|1970 May Army issues new regulations allowing mustaches and sideburns.|
|1970 5-7 - Stanford
University, ROTC building destoyed by fire again
|1970 5-8 Construction workers
attack antiwar demonstrators, Wall St., NY
|1970 5-8 Anti-Vietnam War
protesters stage the first moratorium marches in Australian cities
(70,000 in Melbourne, and about 120,000 throughout Australia).
|1970 5-9 A peaceful
anti-war rally held at the Ellipse in Washington, DC was attended by
about 80,000 people including about 10 members of Congress
[75,000-100,000 to protest Cambodia escalation
|1970 5-14,15 Student unrest -
Jackson State University. Two students killed.
|1970 5-15,16 “Armed Farces Day” demonstrations organized by GIs at seventeen locations around the country.|
|1970 5-29,31 National GI antiwar
conference in Atlanta, Georgia.
|1970 June Pentagon admits it
cannot account for 80,000 GIs
|1970 6-11 Daniel Berrigan
arrested by FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy
|1970 6-26,27 Six antiwar GIs at
Fort Lewis publicly refuse to be sent to Vietnam, possibly the largest
action to date at any Army Shipment Center on grounds of conscientious
objection, and become known as the “Fort Lewis Six.”
|1970 6-29 Private Willie
Williams, a black GI at Fort Lewis, is court-martialed for presenting
an antiwar statement and poster to his commanding officer, and
sentenced despite a June 19 rally at the Shelter Half in his support.
|1970 8-3 Margaret Kuhn
start Gray Panthers to
protest discrimination against elderly
|1970 8-24 the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Sterling Hall bombing.|
|1970 8-29 The Chicano Moratorium: on August 29, some 25,000 Mexican-Americans participated in the largest anti-war demonstration in Los Angeles. Police attacked the crowd with billyclubs and teargas; two people were killed. Immediately after the marchers were dispersed, sheriff's deputies raided a nearby bar, where they shot and killed Ruben Salazar, KMEX news director and Los Angeles Times columnist, with a tear-gas projectile.|
|1970 9-4,7 Operation R.A.W. (Rapid American Withdrawal), 75 mile march from Morristown, NJ to Valley Forge, PA. Stage simulated search and destroy missions along way to dramatize the horror of the Vietnam War.|
|1970 9-18 About 100,000 people
take part in a second moratorium march in Australia.
|1970 9-18 Jimi Hendrix dies.|
|1970 10-4 Janis Joplin dies|
|1970 10-13 Angela Davis arrested
on kidnapping, murder and conspiracy charges
|1970 10-16 State of Emergency
declared in Canada.
|1970 11-3 Allende becomes
president of Chile.
|1970 Kissinger and Le Duc Begin Secret Talks|
|1970 12-7 South Africa expelled
|1970 12-14 The military declares Fort Lewis a closed base to civilians.|
|1970 12-22 Cooper-Church
Amendment to Defense Appropriations Bill forbids use of US ground
forces in Laos and Cambodia.
|1970 12-31 335,800 U.S. troops|
|1970-71 Academic Year: 110
campus incidents against the ROTC occur compared to 400 in 1969-70
|1971 Jan. Military launches an
experiment to transition the Army from draft-based induction to an
all-volunteer force, a program called VOLAR; The 3rd Armored Cavalry at
Fort Lewis was one of three units nationwide chosen for the VOLAR
|1971 1-4 Nixon declares that an
end to the war is in sight.
|1971 1-12 Rev. Philip Berrigan
and 5 others indicted for conspiracy to kidnap Henry Kissinger and bomb
|1971 1-12 Ralph Nader
forms Earth Act group
|1971 1-13 President Nixon signs
a bill repealing the Gulf of Tonkin resolution
|1971 1-31,2 Vietnam Veterans Against the War’s “Winter Soldier” hearings held in Detroit.|
|1971 2-8 In Operation Lam Son
719, three South Vietnamese divisions drive into Laos to attack two
major enemy bases. Unknowingly, they are walking into a North
Vietnamese trap. Over the next month, more than 9,000 South Vietnamese
troops are killed or wounded. More than two thirds of the South
Vietnamese Army's armored vehicles are destroyed, along with hundreds
of U.S. helicopters and planes.
|1971 2-13 Private Wade Carson,
an ASU member, is court-martialed and convicted for attempting to
distribute Fed Up on post. The prosecution’s case was flimsy, and
Carson was being prosecuted more for his active role in the ASU and
organizing on the other bases to which he was transferred as punishment.
|1971 2-18 FTA formed by Jane
Fonda and Donald Sutherland.
|1971 3-1 Bomb explodes in
Capitol men's room - Washington DC. The Weathermern claim
responsibility "in retaliation for the Laos decision"
|1971 3-5 Pakistani army occupy
|1971 3-15 Billy Smith arrested
and accused of fragging two officers at Bien Hoa.
|1971 3-23 Puget Sound Sound Off, an antiwar paper, debuts from the Puget Sound Naval Complex in Bremerton, initiated by active duty soldiers and officers from the Concerned Officers Movement (COM).|
|1971 3-23 Coup - Argentina.
|1971 3-29 Lt. William Calley found guilty for his involvement in My Lai massacre. Charles Manson sentenced to death.|
|1971 3-30 It was later
found out that on this date; "a confidential Army directive orders
personnel to intercept and confiscate personal mail containing anti-war
and other dissident material sent to soldiers in Vietnam."
|1971 4-1 Nixon orders Lt. Calley
be released pending his appeal.
|1971 4-7 During a speech,
President Nixon said that in relation to setting a firm date for troop
withdrawal, that it would "serve the enemy's purpose, not our own."
|1971 4-11 Protest and all-night vigil in downtown Bremerton, organized by the Navy’s Concerned Officers’ Movement, as the Navy supercarrier USS Constellation (nicknamed “Connie”) set sail from the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a scheduled bombing mission in Southeast Asia. The Connie would become the focus of larger protests during a stop in San Diego, and en route, as crew members became part of the “Save Our Ship” (SOS) antiwar movement and held protests on board ships.|
|1971 4-13,14 FTA Show performs
at Haymarket Square coffee house (Cast includes Peter Boyle, Barbara
Dane, Jane Fonda, Dick Gregory and Donald Sutherland).
|1971 4-18 2,300 Vietnam
Veterans came to Washington, DC to participate in Dewey Canyon III, "a
military incursion into the country of Congress". Led by Vietnam
Veterans Against the War (VVAW), the vets camped on the mall 1/4 mile
from the Capitol, and threw away military medals and ribbons at the
foot of the statue of Chief Justice John Marshall.
|1971 4-24 1000 active duty
GIs lead up to 500,00 anti-war protesters converge upon Washington,
D.D.; at least 150,000 take part in a similar demonstration in San
10 days of protests by a group calling themselves the "Mayday Tribe" included attempted work stoppages at several federal offices in Washington, DC
|1971 4-46 50,000 demonstrators
in Washington D.C. set up "Algonquin
|1971 5-1,3 National antiwar May
Day actions called; at Fort Lewis on May 3, the GIA organizes a “sick
in” strike of active duty men, which is partially successful; antiwar
rallies scheduled in Seattle (May 1) and Tacoma (May 2).
|1971 5-3 5,100 policemen backed
by 10,000 federal troops resulted in an unprecedented mass arrest of
approximately 7,000 persons, with another 2,700 arrested the next day.
Protests ended 5 May with the arrest of another 1,200 demonstrators on
the Capitol's east steps during a rally attended by some members of
|1971 5-3 “FTA,” an antiwar
musical/comedy/political show, featuring Jane Fonda
and Donald Sutherland, performed at University of Puget Sound.
|1971 5-4 Antiwar teach-in at the University of Puget Sound.|
|1971 5-5 University of Washington/Washington State University memorials held for Kent and Jackson State students killed by police; May Day actions continue with a march and rally in Bremerton, where the Bremerton mayor signs an “anti-Viet Nam war statement.”|
|1971 5-5 Riot control units of
the 82nd Airborne Division are deployed in Washington DC to “preserve
law and order” as 50,000 anti war protestors descend on the
Capital to “Stop the Government”.
|1971 5-11 Indian occupation of
Alcatraz ends after 19 months
|1971 5-15 Second “Armed Farces Day” activities held, the largest united nationwide action of the GI movement, with protests at 19 separate posts (including Air Force and Navy); at Fort Lewis, over 700 army and McChord airmen attend the two-day people’s fair organized by the GIA; in Bremerton, members of the COM and veterans leaflet the Bremerton Armed Forces Day parade.|
|1971 5-22 At Travis Air Force Base in Northern California, a mass rebellion among mostly African American airmen results in the arrest of 135 airmen, the largest mass rebellion in Air Force history. The events at Travis spark the formation of the Coromantee Brothers Council among black airmen at McChord, who launched a series of anti-discrimination programs aimed at off-base housing, legal counseling, and greater participation in base cultural/educational activities, and sponsored a visit from the Seattle Black Panther Party.|
|1971 6-13 NY Times starts
publishing Pentagon Papers
|1971 June the Armed Forces Journal [Col. Robert D. Heinl ,"The Collapse of the Armed Forces"], reported: "The morale, discipline and battle-worthiness of the U.S. Armed Forces are, with a few salient exceptions, lower and worse than at any time in this century and possibly in the history of the United States. By every conceivable indicator, our army that now remains in Vietnam is in a state approaching collapse, with individual units avoiding or having refused combat, murdering their officers and noncommissioned officers, drug-ridden and dispirited where not near-mutinous. Elsewhere than Vietnam, the situation is nearly as serious."|
|1971 6-30 Six GIs and ten
civilians arrested for distributing the Declaration of Independence at
Fort Lewis as an act of protest.
|1971 6-30 About 110,000
demonstrate in State capitals of Australia.
|1971 8-18 Australia and New
Zealand announce the withdrawal of their troops from Vietnam.
|1971 8-21 George Jackson killed.
|1971 8-22 The Camden 28 conducted a raid on the Camden, New Jersey, draft board offices.|
|1971 9-1 The Shelter Half
coffeehouse moves to a second location in Tacoma (1902 Tacoma Ave
South). Fed Up stops appearing regularly.
|1971 9-9,13 Prison riot - Attica.
|1971 9-28 Stop Our Ship
Referendum - citizens of San Diego are asked to decide whether the USS
Constellation should remain at homeport or sail for Vietnam.
|1971 10-10,11 Combat refusal -
|1971 10-20 United States Congressional Committee on Internal Security begins the first of a three-part series of investigative hearings into the GI movement, with a focus on activity at Fort Lewis (published in the summer of 1972).|
|1971 10-25 Mass arrest of GIs,
the staff of the Oleo Strut, including the director of Sir! No Sir!,
and supporters for staging antiwar Veteran's Day demonstration -
|1971 12-26 Members of VVAW seize the Statue of Liberty in protest of renewed air attacks on North Vietnam.|
|1972 1-25 Shirley Chisholm
announces her candidacy for President.
|1972 2-24 After 16 months in
prison, Angela Davis is released
|1972 3-10,12 several
thousand African Americans gathered in Gary, Indiana, for the National
Black Political Convention
|1972 3-22 ERA adopted by the
|1972 3-29 166 people, many of
them seminarians, were arrested in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for
encircling the Federal Courthouse with a chain, to protest the trial of
|1972 3-30 Massed North
Vietnamese Army artillery open a shattering barrage, targeting South
Vietnamese positions across the DMZ. Upwards of 20,000 NVA troops cross
the DMZ, forcing the South Vietnamese units into a retreat. U.S.
|1972 4-1 North Vietnamese
soldiers push toward the city of Hue, which is defended by a South
Vietnamese division and a division of U.S. Marines. But by April 9, the
NVA are forced to halt attacks and resupply.
|1972 4-13 In an assault
spearheaded by tanks, NVA troops manage to seize control of the
northern part of the city. But the 4,000 South Vietnamese men defending
the city, reinforced by elite airborne units, hold their positions and
launch furious counterattacks. American B-52 bombers also help with the
defense. A month later, Vietcong forces withdraw.
|1972 4-15 Hanoi and Haiphong
|1972 4-17 3,000 students march
on the ROTC building at the University of Wisconsin, smearing blood on
|1972 4-19 in response to renewed escalation of bombing, students at many colleges and universities around the country broke into campus buildings and threatened strikes. The following weekend, protests were held in New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and elsewhere.|
|1972 4-27 Two weeks after the
initial attack, North Vietnamese forces again battle toward Quang Tri
City. The defending South Vietnamese division retreats. By April 29,
the NVA takes Dong Ha, and by May 1, Quang Tri City.
|1972 4-28 First antiwar
demonstration at McChord Air Force Base occurs.
|1972 5-8 American forces mine the Hanoi and Haiphong ports.|
|1972 5-11Chicago 7 convictions
|1972 5-13 protests again spread across the country in response to President Nixon's decision to mine harbors in North Vietnam and renewed bombing of North Vietnam (Operation Linebacker).|
|1972 5-15 Gov. George Wallace
shot during primary campaign in Maryland
|1972 5-20 Armed Farces Day.
|1972 6-17 Watergate breakin.
|1972 July Jane Fonda visits
|1972 7-8 GIs picket Court of
Military Appeals, Washington DC, in support of Billy Smith.
|1972 7-19 With U.S. air support,
the South Vietnamese Army begins a drive to recapture Binh Dinh
province and its cities. The battles last until September 15, by which
time Quong Tri has been reduced to rubble. Nevertheless, the NVA
retains control of the northern part of the province.
|1972 8-12 The last American
ground troops leave SV. 43,5000 air and support remain
|1971 8-23 1100 antiwar protest
arrested outside Republican National Convention
|1972 9-5,6 11 Israeli athletes
killed at the Munich Olympics by the Black September Organization.
|1972 12-13 In Paris, peace talks
between the North Vietnamese and the Americans breakdown.
|1972 12-18,29 "Christmas
bombing" of North Vietnam. By order of the president, a new bombing
campaign starts against the North Vietnamese. Operation Linebacker Two
lasts for 12 days, including a three day bombing period by up to 120
B-52s. Strategic surgical strikes are planned on fighter airfields,
transport targets and supply depots in and around Hanoi and Haiphong.
U.S. aircraft drop more than 20,000 tons of bombs in this operation.
Twenty-six U.S. planes are lost, and 93 airmen are killed, captured or
|1972 12-30 Bombing North of the
20th parallel is ended
|1973 1-27 Last American
serviceman to be killed in combat in South Vietnam, Lt. Col. William
Nolde, is killed.
|1973 1-28 Cease-fire Signed in Paris|
|1973 End of Military Draft
|1973 2-28,5-8 Occupation and
seige of Wounded Knee
|1973 2-29 The last U.S. troops
|1973 3-20 VVAW members and GIs in the 864th Engineers Battalion at Fort Lewis confronted their CO and demanded more respect from officers, the removal of NCO’s who made racist remarks, better schooling opportunities and job assignments, and other quality-of-life issues. Their demands were later endorsed generally by the Army Secretary.|
|1973 4-4 World Trade Center
|1973 6-19 Congress approves
Case-Church Amendment which forbids any further US military involvement
in South East Asia after August 14.
|1973 8-14 U.S. bombing
activities in Cambodia are halted.
|1973 8-31Gainsville 8 acquitted
|1973 9-11 Coup - Chile.|
|1974 4-1 Jane Fonda arrives in Vietnam on second visit|
|1974 8-9 President Nixon
resigns from the Presidency at noon
|1974 9-4 Nixon pardoned by President Ford|
|1974 9-7 CIA operation against
Chile's Marxist Govt. disclosed
|1974 12-21 NY Times reports on
CIA illegal domestic activities during Vietnam War
|1974 12-26 The 7th North
Vietnamese Army division captures Dong Xoai.
|1975 1-6 In a disastrous loss
for the South Vietnamese, the NVA take Phuoc Long city and the
|1975 3-1 A powerful NVA
offensive is unleashed in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam. The
resulting South Vietnamese retreat is chaotic and costly, with nearly
60,000 troops dead or missing.
|1975 3-25 Hue, South Vietnam's
third largest city, falls to the North Vietnamese Army.
|1975 4-29 U.S. Marines and Air
Force helicopters, flying from carriers off-shore, begin a massive
airlift. In 18 hours, over 1,000 American civilians and almost 7,000
South Vietnamese refugees are flown out of Saigon.
|1975 4-30 Saigon falls. At 4:03
a.m., two U.S. Marines are killed in a rocket attack at Saigon's Tan
Son Nhut airport. They are the last Americans to die in the Vietnam
War. At dawn, the last Marines of the force guarding the U.S. embassy
lift off. Only hours later, looters ransack the embassy, and North
Vietnamese tanks role into Saigon, ending the war.
|1976 4-25 Nationwide elections
are held in Vietnam for a National Assembly of 249 deouties from the
North and 243 from the South. It is claimed that 98.7 percent of the
|1976 6-24 NA of Vietnam meets
for the first time
|1976 11-15 U.S. vetoes Vietnam's
application to the UN on the gounds of Vietnam's 'brutal and inhumane"
attutude to U.S. servicemen still listed as missing in action.